Inflammation for Muscle Growth

If you have been weight lifting for a year or more and read magazines and the internet for information, you probably have come across the topic of Inflammation. You have certain people in the industry promoting anti-inflammation for fat loss and muscle growth and other industry experts advocating inflammation for protein synthesis and fat loss as well. When I mention inflammation I am referring to inflammation derived from nutrients in food such as fatty acids. High dose fish oil has been touted as a major player in regulating inflammation from a nutritional stand point, and arachidonic acid has been hyped up as a pro inflammatory muscle builder by supplement companies. How can two polar opposite fatty acids elicit the same results for building muscle and decreasing body fat? The simple answer is: they don't. I have experimented first hand with high dose fish oil and olive oil and also high doses of arachidonic acid from red meat, egg yolks and various cheeses. I will share with you the effects that I got from both ends of the fatty acid spectrum when dieting for extreme fat loss.

Pro-Inflammatory                                               Anti-Inflammatory


After reading several articles from a popular trainer and author on a famous website that is revolved around testosterone and selling their own products, I took notice of his advice regarding extremely high dose fish oil. He was not just recommending 4-6 softgels a day, but up to 40 softgels a day of your standard 1000 mg product! After devising a plan of action about what products I was going to use and how I was going to orchestrate my diet, I would give this method a go. I planned on utilizing a low carbohydrate diet with carbohydrates only coming from green vegetables which bare minimal impact on blood sugar. I also chose liquid fish oil and olive oil for my only fat sources. The two oils were dosed at 4 tablespoons a day. Saturated fat from egg yolks and red meat were not present as I really wanted my omega 3 and omega 9 levels sky high.

 

4 tbs of carlson's fish oil
=
19,200 mgs EPA = 6,000 mgs DHA

 

4 tbs of olive oil
= 44 grams of monounsaturated fat

 

I was ready to dive right in and become joint pain free and absolutely shredded from oxidizing fat from increased uncoupling proteins. I was already in very respectable condition prior to starting this cutting phase. I had my abs displaying with a pretty thin skin fold measurement and of course arms were lean and vascular, I would say I was 9-11% maximum in body fat. My mass gaining diet prior to starting was still low carbs, but high in red meat from burgers, bacon, cheese, and peanut butter.

So the experiment began…

I was adamant about not ingesting nuts or nut butters as I really felt I would achieve optimal results from suffering with just oils and keeping trace carbs to a minimum. After the first week I began to notice some cosmetic changes. I felt like my muscle bellies were flat and deflating slightly, I also noticed my pronounced vascularity was less prevalent. My joints felt nice, but I really felt softer and smaller. I just assumed this was an awkward period from transitioning into a dieting phase from a mass gaining phase, and after 3-4 weeks, things will swing my way.

Week 3 arrived and a moment of reality hit me like a ton of bricks when a friend came into my work to talk to me. The very first thing he said when he saw me was "What happened to you? You look like crap?" "You looked bigger and leaner before you started your diet, what the hell is going on?" I immediately took offense and asked him what his problem was and he doesn't know what he's talking about, but after 5 minutes I knew he was absolutely right. I explained to him that I was experimenting with high dosages of essential fatty acids, namely omega-3 and omega-9 and that it is supposed to do all of these awesome things for fat-loss amongst other benefits. He quickly told me to ditch this protocol and do what I have always done because this obviously wasn't meshing well with my body type. Like I mentioned earlier, I already felt the signs of this diet going south from the first week and knew I had to switch gears and get myself back on track.


"What happened to you? You look like crap?"

I know that I am ectomorphic in nature and have always had a blazing metabolism. This made it very difficult building muscle and gaining weight. I knew from my past offseason that I respond extremely well to saturated fats. My new diet now consisted of lean red meat, whole eggs, whey isolate shakes with added egg yolks, light mozzarella cheese, and natural peanut butter. I would perform a carbohydrate refeed twice a week, on Thursday and Sunday for a 4 hour period.

Previous diet menu:           New diet menu:

-Olive oil                                             -Steak

-Fish oil                                              -Whole eggs (added yolks)

-Chicken breast                               -Cheese

-Whey isolate                                   -Peanut butter

After 1 week of switching from high dosages of fish oil and olive oil to an arachidonic acid rich diet, the changes to my physique were dramatic. My muscles began to swell and fill out, my vein protrusion was magnified, and my physique tightened up considerably. As the weeks flew by I got into better condition while maintaining muscular fullness even without the presence of carbohydrates. This solidified my thoughts regarding saturated fats being beneficial for ectomorphic hard gainers, and high fish oil being favorable for the huskier, endomorph body types.

 

Naturally lean ectomorphs
= High arachidonic based diet

 

Naturally husky endomorphs
= High fish oil based diet

 

From current literature it is widely accepted that ectomorphs have sufficient insulin sensitivity and higher metabolic rates. Endomorphs typically display insulin resistance issues and do very poorly with processing glucose, and also struggle with dropping body fat. Studies have demonstrated that saturated fat can increase insulin resistance by suppressing GLUT-4 production which reduces glucose transport significantly. However, for the ectomorph body type this shouldn't pose any threat. Saturated fatty acids have also been shown to increase testosterone production and increase prostaglandin formation from a class of substances called eicosanoids. Saturated fat found in red meat, animal organs, and egg yolks contain high amounts of arachidonic acid, which ultimately gets converted into the prostaglandin PGF2a. Once converted to PGF2a, it can begin doing it's magic.

Pgf2a has been shown to inhibit adipogenesis through mitigating the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase. Arachidonic acid is also speculated to increase protein synthesis by the muscle being stretched from training and releasing prostaglandins PGF2a and PGE2. PGE2 is paramount in its role to induce satellite cell proliferation and fusion. This chain of events will increase the amount of nuclei in the cell which correlates to rapid muscle growth from mRNA production. These are just some of the attributes associated with consuming high amounts of inflammatory inducing fatty acids.

As you can clearly see from my personal experience and the facts listed, that for the hard gainer, following a pro inflammatory based diet is optimal for muscle growth and lean mass retention. For the individuals who have naturally higher body fat levels and struggle to shed fat, I would say having higher dosages of omega-3 is advisable. Not excessive amounts like the article I read from that website, but at least 8-12 softgels a day. I personally believe all body types should keep carbohydrate intake low to moderate, but especially endomorphs need to be very meticulous with their carbohydrate consumption if they value a favorable body composition.

Schematic summary of the biosynthetic pathway for eicosanoids derived from arachidonic acid.


Please understand that I experimented with such a diet while keeping my insulin levels extremely low, due to being on a ketogenic type of diet. If consuming copious amounts of carbohydrates I would definitely not implement excessive amounts of saturated fats due to health implications that could arise. In retrospect, I realized that this type of nutrition plan worked great for me, but I now firmly believe in nutritional balance. I advise people to consume both types of fats in equal ratios combined with low carbohydrate allotment.

References:

1.)Juan J. Moreno*, T. Carbonell, T. Sánchez*, S. Miret and Maria T. MitjavilaOlive Oil Decreases both Oxidative Stress and the Production of Arachidonic Acid Metabolites by the Prostaglandin G/H Synthase Pathway in Rat Macrophages 3J. Nutr. August 1, 2001vol. 131 no. 8 2145-2149.

2.)Courtney E. Leik PhD, Scott W. Walsh, PhD. Linoleic Acid, but not Oleic Acid, Upregulates Production of Interleukin-8 by Human Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells via Arachidonic Acid Metabolites Under Conditions of Oxidative Stress.doi: 10.1016/j.jsgi.2005.09.004Reproductive Sciences December 2005 vol. 12 no. 8 593-598

3.)Andersson, A., A. Sjodin, A. Hedman, RM. Olsson, and B. Vessby. Fatty acid profile of skeletal muscle phospholipids in trained and untrained young men. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 279:E744-751, 2000.d profile

4.)Shephard, R. J. and P.N. Shek. Immune responses to inflammation and trauma: a physical training model. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 76: 469-472, 1998.

5.)Rajaram S, Connell KMSabaté J. Effect of almond-enriched high-monounsaturated fat diet on selected markers of inflammation: a randomised, controlled, crossover study. Br J Nutr. 2010 Mar;103(6):907-12. Epub 2009 Oct 29.

6.)Teruo Kawada,* Shun Kayahashi, Yoshifumi Hida,Ken-ji Koga, Yoshitaka Nadachi, and Tohru Fushik, Fish (Bonito) Oil Supplementation Enhances the Expression of Uncoupling Protein in Brown Adipose Tissue of Rat. J. Agric. Food Chem., 1998, 46 (4), pp 1225–1227

7.)DJ Maron, JM Fair and WL Haskell, Saturated fat intake and insulin resistance in men with coronary artery disease. The Stanford Coronary Risk Intervention Project Investigators and Staff. Circulation, Vol 84, 2020-2027, Copyright © 1991 by American Heart Association.

8.)Dorgan JFJudd JTLongcope CBrown CSchatzkin AClevidence BACampbell WSNair PPFranz CKahle LTaylor PR, Effects of dietary fat and fiber on plasma and urine androgens and estrogens in men: a controlled feeding study. Am J Clin Nutr. 1996 Dec;64(6):850-5.

9.)Zalin RJ The role of hormones and prostanoids in the in vitro proliferation and differentiation of human myoblasts. Exp Cell Res. 1987 Oct;172(2):265-81.

10.)Palmer RM. Prostaglandins and the control of muscle protein synthesis and degradation. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent FattyAcids. 1990 Feb; 39(2):95-104

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Carbs Plus Stress Increases Estrogen

If you are a person who wants to attain a leaner, more define physique, than you need to take action to lower cortisol levels and lower your carbohydrate consumption.

                     … And here is why 

There was a fascinating study performed by researchers from the University of Birmingham that examined Glucocorticoid (cortisol) & insulin regulation and how it affects aromatase activity in human adipose tissue, revealing different outcomes in men and women.

In this study, researchers wanted to examine insulin & cortisol’s role in potentiating aromatase activity in men and women by taking samples of subcutaneous and omental (visceral) adipose tissue for rigorous testing.

The research candidates were premenopausal women (7) and postmenopausal women (10) and 9 men.  The researchers found that the male candidate’s basal aromatase activity was significantly higher in the subcutaneous tissues opposed to omental (visceral) tissue with cortisol + insulin present. Insulin appeared to exacerbate cortisol’s effect in promoting aromatase activity.

The female test subjects had similar results as the males, but even more aromatase activity with insulin + cortisol present. This small piece of the study reveals that subcutaneous adipose tissue has a much greater affinity for aromatase activity than omental (visceral) fat in both genders.

When they examined the differences between pre & postmenopausal women and their reaction to insulin + cortisol the results revealed that postmenopausal women had high aromatase in the omental (visceral) tissues than premenopausal women. However both pre & postmenopausal women revealed the same response to aromatase activity in the subcutaneous tissues.

Sex steroids such as Dhea, Androstenedione, Estrone, Testosterone etc… may regulate adipose mass by increasing preadipocyte proliferation, differentiation, and adipocyte size through effects on lipolysis (fat-loss) and lipogenesis (fat accrural).

Insulin plays a crucial role in adipocyte proliferation and differentiation, however in this study, insulin ALONE has no effect on aromatase expression, whereas insulin + cortisol demonstrated an additive effect on aromatase activity.

You know what that means for most people who utilize high carbohydrate diet’s to either keep dietary fat low or to gain weight?

It means that relatively high doses of insulin (think dextrose & white rice) in combination with cortisol (think low blood sugar from spiked insulin) increases aromatase activity, which promotes estrogen levels in excess.

This is extremely undesirable for favorable body composition as this phenomenon will promote proliferation and differentiation of preadipocytes, enhancing central adiposity (fat mass accrural).

  Now what you should do

I hope after reading this article you recognize that ingesting copious amounts of carbohydrates in your plight for ultimate muscle mass or general health (because you still abide by the USDA outdated food pyramid which is simply asinine) you understand that manipulating your insulin and cortisol levels through meticulous nutrition planning will be in your best interests.

I am NOT telling you to switch to an Atkins or Ketogenic Diet by any means, simply just to pay attention to your carbohydrate choices (high glycemic VS low glycemic) and also your glycemic loads (grams of carbs per meal). If you absolutely insist you MUST incorporate carbohydrates around the clock with each meal, make sure to keep the gram allotment low, at around 20-30 grams per meal, as this keeps the glycemic load under control. Also, employ high glycemic carbs ONLY around your weight training or high activity event. The remainder of your carbs (if you insist you need them) should be low glycemic.

I would suggest you to just use carbohydrates INFREQUENTLY, meaning pre & post training, while the rest of your meals consist of top quality protein sources and raw, undenatured fats.

Incorporating a supplement that increases growth hormone production while lowering the stress hormone cortisol would be beneficial for those striving to get as lean as possible while dieting for fat-loss or gaining mass while keeping body fat lower.

Look no further than Primordial’s EndoAmp Max, which will do just that – Increase GH & lower cortisol, while enhancing mental acuity and focus.

  Helpful tips to lower cortisol & insulin –

  • Deep tissue massages will relax your muscles and mind, which will lower cortisol

  • Keeping the glycemic load small at each carbohydrate meal will keep insulin stable

  • Sleeping in a silent pitch black room will initiate high quality sleep for lowering cortisol and boosting GH release

  • Combining essential fats to each low glycemic load meal will further lower insulin release

  • Supplementing with adaptogenic herbs such as magnolia bark & rhodiola lower cortisol

  • Incorporating fiber into each meal will keep insulin levels low

  • Supplementing with Primordial Performance EndoAmp will boost GH & lower cortisol

 

References:  J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Mar;87(3):1327-36.  Glucocorticoid regulation of p450 aromatase activity in human adipose tissue: gender and site differences.  McTernan PG, Anderson LA, Anwar AJ, Eggo MC, Crocker J, Barnett AH, Stewart PM, Kumar S.

Post-Exercise Protein Consumption is Mandatory

In order to gain muscle, you MUST undergo intense resistance training.  In order to gain muscle, you MUST consume protein to re-build muscle tissue.

These two variables work synergistically with each other and to maximize your chances of gaining lean muscle tissue you simply must consume protein alongside a resistance training routine.

The timing of protein ingestion is a highly debatable subject and has been unresolved as to whether precise timing is truly essential for measureable repair/growth opposed to simply consuming enough protein at other times of the day.

A very interesting study was conducted that investigated whether immediate protein consumption or a 2-hour delayed protein consumption had measureable impact on muscle hypertrophy and strength.

13 men with a body mass index (BMI) of 25 ± 1 kg m− 2 (means ± SEM) completed a 12-week resistance training program, training 3 times a week receiving oral protein in liquid form (10 g protein, 7 g carbohydrate, 3 g fat) immediately post workout, OR 2 hours post workout.

Scientists examined muscle hypertrophy by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and from muscle biopsies and muscle strength was examined using dynamic and isokinetic strength measurements. They also measured body composition from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and food records were recorded over 4 days. 

They also measured insulin response to protein supplementation.  Here are the exciting and convincing results after this experiment was concluded –

  • Cross-sectional area of m. quadriceps femoris (54.6 ± 0.5–58.3 ± 0.5 cm2) and mean fiber area (4047 ± 320–5019 ± 615 μ m2) increased in the P0 group (liquid protein post-exercise group)

  • No significant increase was observed in the 2-hour delayed group

  • Dynamic & isokinetic strength increased by 46% & 15%, respectively (liquid protein post-exercise group)

  • The 2-hour delayed group ONLY improved dynamic strength by 36%

  • No differences in glucose or insulin response were observed between protein intake at 0 and 2 h post-exercise.

 This phenomenal study proves the significance of ingesting a fast acting protein supplement such as; whey protein isolate immediately post-exercise for initiating muscle hypertrophy.

 

References:

1.) B Esmarck,J L Andersen*S Olsen, E A Richter†, M Mizuno, Timing of postexercise protein intake is important for muscle hypertrophy with resistance training in elderly humans. 

August 15, 2001 The Journal of Physiology, 535, 301-311. 

High LDL Cholesterol Builds Big Muscles

The word “cholesterol” is often interpreted as a major health concern regarding cardiovascular health.  When most people think of cholesterol they think of “Good Cholesterol” & “Bad Cholesterol.”  

The “Good Cholesterol” is associated with High Density Lipo-Proteins (HDL) & “Bad Cholesterol” is associated with Low Density Lipo-Proteins (LDL).  Recent research performed by Dr. Riechman from Texas A&M University may have shed some new light in regards to “Bad Cholesterol” not being such a bad guy after all.  Riechman determined that you need a reasonable amount of LDL circulating in your blood to induce adequate muscle hypertrophy.

In fact, he performed a study involving 52 adults from ages 60-69 years old who were in generally good health , but not physically active. None of the subjects were training on a regular basis. The summation of the study concluded that after moderate intense exercise, participants who had accrued the most muscle mass also displayed the highest levels of LDL (bad cholesterol). This was definitely a surprise, and not something that was expected.

This unique finding demonstrates that you need a certain amount of LDL to elicit adequate muscular hypertrophy. It proves that all forms of cholesterol are paramount to a person’s health. You simply cannot remove all of your “bad cholesterol” as that would actually be detrimental to your health.                                                                  

+ =

Low Density Lipo-Proteins gets a bad reputation for its ability to build up in the walls of arteries, which causes a reduction in blood circulation which often leads to heart disease and heart attacks.

High Density Lipo-Proteins often helps facilitate the removal of cholesterol from the arteries. However, LDL is significant in the fact that it serves as a “warning sign” that something is wrong and alerts the body to defend the malady at hand.

People need to understand that you do not want to completely rid yourself of bad cholesterol and understand that everyone needs a certain amount of both forms of cholesterol.

Riechman says “Our tissues need cholesterol, and LDL delivers it,”  “HDL, the good cholesterol, cleans up after the repair is done. And the more LDL you have in your blood, the better you are able to build muscle during resistance training.”

The study Dr. Riechman conducted serves as a useful finding in dealing with conditions such as Sarcopenia (age dependent muscle loss), which could help aging individuals fend off muscular atrophy which shortens one’s life span.

The following findings reveal how imperative essential fatty acids and saturated fat based diets are in overall health, and in a person’s plight for ultimate muscle mass accrual. 

Ghrelin Hormone: An Ectomorph’s Solution to Muscular Weight Gain

The endogenous growth hormone secretagogue Ghrelin may play a paramount role in your quest for muscle growth. This gastric hormone stimulates hunger in mice and in humans by binding to the ghrelin receptors located in the hypothalamus and the hippocampus.


Reasons why people feel the urge to eat

Ghrelin is highest when blood sugar is low and being in a fasted state. Ghrelin is a potent endogenous growth hormone releaser, and is the strongest of the secretagogues. Even though it increases growth hormone release, some of its effects are quite different from growth hormone itself. Ghrelin encourages lipogenesis, whereas growth hormone supports lypolysis. Ghrelin also supports glucose oxidation, while growth hormone suppresses insulin production for inhibited glucose disposal. This equates to ghrelin being highly effective for weight gain through adipogenic pathways and growth hormone supporting weight loss through lipolytic pathways.

Ghrelin Effects:                                            Synthetic Growth Hormone Effects:

-Increases endogenous GH                                -Synthetically derived

-Encourages lipogenesis (fat gain)                     -Encourages lipolysis (fat loss)

-Increases glucose oxidation                             -May promote insulin resistance

-Great for weight gain                                       -Great for fat loss

Knowing such facts makes it very clear that ghrelin would be perfect for the ectomorphic, hard gainer body type. If you are someone who frequents the bodybuilding internet forums, then you are probably aware of the recent surge in popularity with research peptide companies. These companies sell a product called GHRP-6, which is a hexapeptide comprised of 28 amino acids that signals the pituitary to secrete growth hormone through increasing ghrelin production. Using GHRP-6 in conjunction with a regimented weight training program and a meticulously planned diet, the ectomorphic trainee could consume copious amounts of high quality nutrients to achieve muscular weight gain that once seemed impossible.

– I must  mention one must be very stringent and meticulous with whom they decide to research with, meaning make sure the company is of high quality and the peptides are USA grade ingredients. A company such as Southern Research Co. has a trusted reputation and  is held in high regard in the research peptide community. 

 

References

1.) Cordido, Fernando; Isidro, Maria L.; Nemina, Rosa; Sangiao-Alvarellos, Susana, Ghrelin and Growth Hormone Secretagogues, Physiological and Pharmacological Aspect. Volume 6, Number 1, March 2009 , pp. 34-42(9)

2.) .Cummings DE, Weigle DS, Frayo RS, Breen PA, Ma MK, Dellinger EP, Purnell JQ, Plasma ghrelin levels after diet-induced weight loss or gastric bypass surgery.
N Engl J Med. 2002 May 23;346(21):1623-30.

3.) Britt Edén Engström, Pia Burman, Camilla Holdstock and F. Anders Karlsson,
Effects of Growth Hormone (GH) on Ghrelin, Leptin, and Adiponectin in GH-Deficient Patients. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Vol. 88, No. 11 5193-5198

The best muscle building protein drink available

After siphoning through several research papers and experimenting with numerous protein formula’s I found the answer…

 “What is the best protein drink for gaining muscle?”

I will briefly go over the common protein powder sources that are highly available and readily used by most health and fitness enthusiast. I WILL NOT expand too much on each type of protein as this article isn’t a long winded “fact sheet.”

Most people involved in the health/fitness and Bodybuilding industry are all too familiar with whey protein, namely whey protein concentrate (WPC) & whey protein isolate (WPI). Both of these whey proteins are considered “fast digesting” and have a high biological value (91). WPI & WPC are typically used pre & post training or anytime someone needs a fast and efficient protein source in their body.

Also highly sought after are the “slower digesting proteins” such as calcium caseinate and micellar casein, with a slightly lower biological value than WPI &WPC (77). These milk proteins are highly regarded as “night time” protein for their slow and steady amino acid delivery.

Recently, peptide based proteins have generated a lot of buzz due to their potential to be rapidly taken up into the blood stream, virtually by-passing the digestion process.Whey protein hydrolysate and casein hydrolysate (PeptoPro) are the 2 proteins that fall into this category. These hydrolyzed versions of whey and casein contain fragments of protein chains composed of 2-3 amino acids (di, tri & oligo) which are instantaneously absorbed and elevate blood
amino acid levels sky high.

A recent study compared both whey and casein and their effects on muscle protein synthesis (MPS) following resistance training.

The study used 17 healthy, young males as test subjects. They were devoid of medical ailments and were all in great physical condition. The subjects were randomized to participate in either 2 protein trials in randomized order or one control trial. protein trial group, 9 men and control trial group, 8 men.

The subjects came into the test facility all in a fasted state and underwent heavy resistance training consisting of 10 sets of 8 repetitions at a predetermined load corresponding to 80% of 1RM.

Post exercise, (within 5 minutes) the participants consumed either water, casein or whey protein.

The amount of protein ingested was 20 grams dissolved into 400 ml of water.

Some cool observations were notated –

Researchers found that whey protein –

  • Spiked IGF-1 concentrations instantly and peaked at 30  minutes
  • Spiked insulin concentrations from 15 – 60 minutes
  • Elicited a Stronger myofibrillar FSR increase immediately post exercise
  • Induces a stronger protein synthesis response in the early post workout period compared to casein

Researchers found that casein protein

  • Did not have profound effects on insulin release
  • Elevated myofibrillar FSR steadily over 6h period opposed to whey
  • Had better anti-catabolic effects than whey protein

On a side note:

The same study did touch base on some fascinating information regarding micellar casein and whey & casein hydrolysates.

Whey hydrolysate elicited an even greater initial spike in muscle protein synthesis FSR than regular whey.

Micellar casein elicited an even slower and longer lasting muscle protein synthesis FSR compared to regular casein.

The very slow micellar casein and the very fast casein hydrolysate (PeptoPro) results in SIMILAR muscle protein synthesis response in the 6h postprandial period, with the casein hydrolysate having the largest MPS response in the early stages.

The conclusion of the study was obvious in the fact that whey initially
spiked MPS immediately and then quickly plummeted downward after the initial spike,
casein spiked MPS more moderately with a more prolonged elevation as time
passed. Immediate intake of whey and casein following heavy resistance training
in young men results in SIMILAR MPS response over the subsequent 6-h recovery
period.

Now – Back to the question of “What is the best protein drink for gaining muscle?”

From my research and personal, empirical experience I believe it is in one’s best interest to utilize a protein supplement that contains a ratio of 50% cold-filtered whey protein isolate & 35% micellar casein or Australian caseinate, and 15% hydrolyzed whey peptides.

Combining both FAST and SLOW assimilating, high quality protein sources have yielded the best results for not only me, but clients as well. You get the benefit of initial high blood amino acid levels and insulinogenic response from whey protein isolate & hydrolyzed whey peptides, then the micellar casein or Australian caseinate sustains blood amino acid levels for up to 7 hours, which elicits an anti-catabolic effect.

Australian Casein Benefits
  • Superior Amino Acid Profile compared to regular casein
  • Higher Glutamine Content compared to regular casein
  • 4.5% Higher Protein Content compared to regular casein
  • Superior Solubility compared to regular casein (mix with a spoon)

I also find it advantageous to consume casein hydrolysate (PeptoPro) DURING your training session to keep blood amino acid levels elevated while not disrupting your gastro-intestinal tract, due to peptide proteins being pre-digested.

 References:

1.    Calbet JA, Holst JJ. Gastric emptying, gastric secretion and enterogastrone response after administration of milk proteins or their peptide hydrolysates in humans. Eur J Nutr. 2004 Jun;43(3):127-39. Epub 2004 Jan 6.

2.    Koopman R, Crombach N, Gijsen AP, Walrand S, Fauquant J, Kies AK, Lemosquet S, Saris WH, Boirie Y, van Loon LJ. Ingestion of a protein hydrolysate is accompanied by an accelerated in vivo digestion and absorption rate when compared with its intact protein. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Jul;90(1):106-15. Epub 2009 May 27.

3.    Tang JE, Moore DR, Kujbida GW, Tarnopolsky MA, Phillips SM. Ingestion of whey hydrolysate, casein, or soy protein isolate: effects on mixed muscle protein synthesis at rest and following resistance exercise in young men. J Appl Physiol. 2009 Sep;107(3):987-92. Epub 2009 Jul 9.

4.     Paul J. Cribb; Andrew D. Williams; Michael F. Carey; Alan Hayes Full Article Table of Contents for Vol. 16, Iss. 5 The Effect of Whey Isolate and Resistance Training on Strength, Body Composition, and Plasma Glutamine.  IJSNEM, 16(5), October 2006, Copyright © 2006

5.     Beelen M, Koopman R, Gijsen AP, Vandereyt H, Kies AK, Kuipers H, Saris WH, van Loon LJ. Protein coingestion stimulates muscle protein synthesis during resistance-type exercise. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Jul;295(1):E70-7. Epub 2008 Apr 22.

 

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