Carbs Plus Stress Increases Estrogen

If you are a person who wants to attain a leaner, more define physique, than you need to take action to lower cortisol levels and lower your carbohydrate consumption.

                     … And here is why 

There was a fascinating study performed by researchers from the University of Birmingham that examined Glucocorticoid (cortisol) & insulin regulation and how it affects aromatase activity in human adipose tissue, revealing different outcomes in men and women.

In this study, researchers wanted to examine insulin & cortisol’s role in potentiating aromatase activity in men and women by taking samples of subcutaneous and omental (visceral) adipose tissue for rigorous testing.

The research candidates were premenopausal women (7) and postmenopausal women (10) and 9 men.  The researchers found that the male candidate’s basal aromatase activity was significantly higher in the subcutaneous tissues opposed to omental (visceral) tissue with cortisol + insulin present. Insulin appeared to exacerbate cortisol’s effect in promoting aromatase activity.

The female test subjects had similar results as the males, but even more aromatase activity with insulin + cortisol present. This small piece of the study reveals that subcutaneous adipose tissue has a much greater affinity for aromatase activity than omental (visceral) fat in both genders.

When they examined the differences between pre & postmenopausal women and their reaction to insulin + cortisol the results revealed that postmenopausal women had high aromatase in the omental (visceral) tissues than premenopausal women. However both pre & postmenopausal women revealed the same response to aromatase activity in the subcutaneous tissues.

Sex steroids such as Dhea, Androstenedione, Estrone, Testosterone etc… may regulate adipose mass by increasing preadipocyte proliferation, differentiation, and adipocyte size through effects on lipolysis (fat-loss) and lipogenesis (fat accrural).

Insulin plays a crucial role in adipocyte proliferation and differentiation, however in this study, insulin ALONE has no effect on aromatase expression, whereas insulin + cortisol demonstrated an additive effect on aromatase activity.

You know what that means for most people who utilize high carbohydrate diet’s to either keep dietary fat low or to gain weight?

It means that relatively high doses of insulin (think dextrose & white rice) in combination with cortisol (think low blood sugar from spiked insulin) increases aromatase activity, which promotes estrogen levels in excess.

This is extremely undesirable for favorable body composition as this phenomenon will promote proliferation and differentiation of preadipocytes, enhancing central adiposity (fat mass accrural).

  Now what you should do

I hope after reading this article you recognize that ingesting copious amounts of carbohydrates in your plight for ultimate muscle mass or general health (because you still abide by the USDA outdated food pyramid which is simply asinine) you understand that manipulating your insulin and cortisol levels through meticulous nutrition planning will be in your best interests.

I am NOT telling you to switch to an Atkins or Ketogenic Diet by any means, simply just to pay attention to your carbohydrate choices (high glycemic VS low glycemic) and also your glycemic loads (grams of carbs per meal). If you absolutely insist you MUST incorporate carbohydrates around the clock with each meal, make sure to keep the gram allotment low, at around 20-30 grams per meal, as this keeps the glycemic load under control. Also, employ high glycemic carbs ONLY around your weight training or high activity event. The remainder of your carbs (if you insist you need them) should be low glycemic.

I would suggest you to just use carbohydrates INFREQUENTLY, meaning pre & post training, while the rest of your meals consist of top quality protein sources and raw, undenatured fats.

Incorporating a supplement that increases growth hormone production while lowering the stress hormone cortisol would be beneficial for those striving to get as lean as possible while dieting for fat-loss or gaining mass while keeping body fat lower.

Look no further than Primordial’s EndoAmp Max, which will do just that – Increase GH & lower cortisol, while enhancing mental acuity and focus.

  Helpful tips to lower cortisol & insulin –

  • Deep tissue massages will relax your muscles and mind, which will lower cortisol

  • Keeping the glycemic load small at each carbohydrate meal will keep insulin stable

  • Sleeping in a silent pitch black room will initiate high quality sleep for lowering cortisol and boosting GH release

  • Combining essential fats to each low glycemic load meal will further lower insulin release

  • Supplementing with adaptogenic herbs such as magnolia bark & rhodiola lower cortisol

  • Incorporating fiber into each meal will keep insulin levels low

  • Supplementing with Primordial Performance EndoAmp will boost GH & lower cortisol

 

References:  J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Mar;87(3):1327-36.  Glucocorticoid regulation of p450 aromatase activity in human adipose tissue: gender and site differences.  McTernan PG, Anderson LA, Anwar AJ, Eggo MC, Crocker J, Barnett AH, Stewart PM, Kumar S.

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What is the difference between DHEA 1-DHEA 4-DHEA R-DHEA and 7-DHEA?


DHEA
(dehydroepiandrosterone)
(Super-5-DHEA†)
 
Main effects
 
+ Anti-aging (youthful energy)
+ Exercise endurance
+ Recovery
+ Fat loss
+ Muscle sparing (anti-catabolic)
+ Immune system
 
 
Primary metabolite –
 
5-androstenediol (5-AD)
 
Description –
 
DHEA is considered "generic" or regular DHEA. It can technically be called 5-DHEA, since the double bond is located in the 5th position. 
 
DHEA has been popular in the life extension crowd since the 1980’s. It's typically used for its ability to support energy and general wellbeing at a dose of 50-100mg/day. (1-3) More recently, higher doses of DHEA have been used to improve body composition due to DHEA’s mild anabolic and thermogenic effects. (1, 4) This makes DHEA an excellent choice for cutting during a calorie deficient diet, since DHEA has good muscle sparing properties. (1, 17)
 
DHEA converts to testosterone at a rate of about 1%, however it has high conversion to 5-androstenediol, where it gets its mild androgenic and anabolic effects. (5-8) DHEA’s thermogenic properties come from its conversion to 7-oxo-DHEA. (4)
 
Due to DHEA’s mild androgenic effects it rarely produces hair loss or acne. Although DHEA has moderate estrogenic effects, it rarely produces gyno or undesirable estrogenic side effects.(1-3) Some more sedentary users have reported anxiety or sleeplessness with DHEA, which is likely related to the neurosteroid activity in the brain. (3) However, this effect is also reported as “motivational energy” which is a frequently reported benefit of DHEA. 
 
Because of DHEA’s wide range of benefits and its balanced hormonal properties it can easily be used for cutting, or to keep gains lean during a lean mass building cycle.
 

4-DHEA
(4-dehydroepiandrosterone)
(Super-4-DHEA†)
 
Main effects –
 
+ Muscle mass (nitrogen retention)
+ Strength
+ Blood volume (hematopoietic)
+ Recovery
+ IGF-1 & GH
 
 
Primary metabolite –
 
4-androstenediol (4-AD)
 
Description –
 
4-DHEA is a naturally occurring DHEA isomer. It’s structure closely resembles regular DHEA but the double bond in the 4th position dramatically changes its effects.
 
4-DHEA readily converts to 4-androstenediol, rather than 5-androstenediol, boosting its anabolic potency more than 2x over regular DHEA. (6-8, 11) 4-DHEA is also expected to have a higher conversion rate to testosterone compared to regular DHEA. (6, 7) The 4-DHEA also lacks the calorie burning thermogenic properties, therefore offering superior calorie retention for a bulking effect. (4) This increased anabolic potency and reduced thermogenic action will lead to noticeable gains in strength, lean tissue growth, and weight gain. 
 
4-DHEA will have mild estrogen conversion that can be easily balanced with a non-aromatizing steroid like androsterone or 1-DHEA. Overall gains will be similar to the original “4-AD” banned in the 2004 Steroid Control Act.
 
As with the other DHEA isomers, 4-DHEA is naturally occurring and non-toxic. (9) Side-effects such as oily skin or reduced fertility are considered mild and temporary. The most notable side-effect would be suppression of natural testosterone production, which makes PCT necessary after a cycle. Overall 4-DHEA is a very safe and effective lean muscle building agent.
 
The only downfall to 4-DHEA is its high cost due to the high dose that is required to see significant muscle building effects.
†:The “Super” (ex., "Super-5-DHEA") signifies a fatty ester attachment to the steroid molecule to assist in bioavailability.

1-DHEA
(1-dehydroepiandrosterone)
(Super-1-DHEA†)
 
Main effects –
 
+ Muscle mass (nitrogen retention)
+ Strength
+ Hardening
+ Bloat reduction
+ Recovery
 
 
Primary metabolite –
 
1-androstenediol (1-AD)
 
Description –
 
1-DHEA is a naturally occurring DHEA isomer which cannot convert to testosterone or estrogen — but instead converts to the non-estrogenic 1-testosterone. (10)
 
The total conversion to 1-testosterone is probably less than 2%. (6,7) However, 1-DHEA gets most of its effects from conversion to 1-androstenediol, which has potent muscle building and hardening effects in and of itself. (8, 11, 12) 1-androstenediol was sold as “1-AD” prior to the 2004 Steroid Control Act, and was known for producing rapid gains in lean mass with zero water retention or bloat.
 
1-DHEA does not convert to estrogen nor does it activate the estrogen receptor like DHEA is known to do. (13) It could be referred to as “dry DHEA”. Because of this, it will stack well with other estrogenic steroids such as 4-DHEA to produce† clean gains in muscle tissue.
 
As with the other DHEA isomers, 1-DHEA is naturally occurring and non-toxic. (14) Side-effects such as oily skin, reduced fertility or increased hair shedding are considered mild and temporary. The most notable side-effect would be suppression of natural testosterone production, which makes PCT necessary after a cycle. This makes 1-DHEA a very safe, legal and effective lean muscle building agent. Some users have reported lethargy with 1-DHEA. This seems to be less severe when balanced with DHEA or 4-DHEA which tend to have an anti-lethargic effect.

7-oxo-DHEA
(7-oxo-dehydroepiandrosterone)
(Super-7-DHEA†)
 
Main effects –
 
+ Fat loss
+ Weight loss
+ Muscle sparing (anti-catabolic)
+ Immune supporting
 
 
Primary metabolite –
 
Androstenetriol (AET)
 
Description –
 
7-oxo-DHEA is a naturally occurring metabolite of DHEA. It’s well known for its weight loss effect due to its strong thermogenic action. (4, 15, 16)
 
The strong thermogenic effect from 7-oxo-DHEA come from its ability to increase two thermogenic enzymes, which increases the body’s ability to burn off calories as heat. (4) Although DHEA shares a similar effect, 7-oxo-DHEA is about 2.5x more active than DHEA. (4) Human studies have shown that 7-oxo-DHEA can increase weight loss, with a majority of weight loss being actual fat tissue. (15-16) Aside from the thermogenic action, 7-oxo-DHEA also appears to be an aromatase inhibitor, which can reduce estrogen levels. 
 
Because of the modification in the 7th position, 7-oxo-DHEA cannot convert to testosterone or estrogen, nor does it have any androgenic or anabolic effects. (15) Because of this, it does not produce side-effects such as hair loss, acne or prostate inflammation. It also blocks the catabolic effect of cortisol, which helps to retain muscle during a low calorie diet.
 
Side-effects of 7-oxo-DHEA may include anxiety or sleeplessness similar to regular DHEA due to the neuro-stimulating effect. However, this is generally mild, and seems to only occur in some users. Overall 7-oxo-DHEA is very tolerable and safe at the typical 100-200mg/day dose. (15, 16)
 
While 7-oxo-DHEA can be useful for a cutting or weight loss protocol, it would not be wise to use during a bulking or mass building cycle. Its tendency to increase the metabolism and rate of calorie burning will make it difficult to build additional muscle mass. (4)
 
†:The “Super” (ex., "Super-5-DHEA") signifies a fatty ester attachment to the steroid molecule to assist in bioavailability.

R-DHEA
(androsterone)
(Super-R-DHEA†)
 
Main effects –
 
+ Strength 
+ Hardening
+ Bloat reduction
+ Recovery
+ Anti-estrogen
+ Sex drive
+ Aggression 
 
 
Primary metabolite –
 
Androstanediol (5-AA)
 
Description –
 
R-DHEA is known as “Reduced DHEA” because it is a 5a-reduced metabolite of DHEA. It’s more commonly referred to as androsterone.
 
This naturally occurring hormone cannot convert to testosterone, but instead converts to the dihydrotestosterone (DHT). (10, 18) Similar to testosterone, DHT is responsible for masculine traits such as aggression, sex drive, and physical strength. (19,20) However, because DHT cannot convert to estrogen, it also helps reduce fat storage and water retention, making it an excellent steroid for increasing muscular hardness and vascularity. 
 
R-DHEA will stack well with 5-DHEA or 4-DHEA as it will help reduce water retention from under the skin, thus creating a “dry” and hard appearance. R-DHEA also has moderate anabolic properties thus allowing it to help enhance lean muscle gains. (21)
 
Strength gains will also be noticeable with R-DHEA due to its strong androgenic effect which will activate the central nervous system and increase muscular power. (20) This will increase explosive power with minimal bodyweight increase. The increased aggression is typically a welcomed benefit, which manifests as increased confidence and an “alpha male” feeling in sexual and social activities. 
 
The strong androgenic action from R-DHEA will also help support libido and erection hardness. (20) This makes R-DHEA useful to help counter the sexually suppressive effects from other steroids. The powerful androgenic effect will also block estrogenic effects, and help prevent (and reverse) gyno. (22, 23)
 
Side-effects from R-DHEA will be limited to androgenic side-effects such as oily skin, acne, and increased hair shedding if the user is prone. These side effects are mild and temporary for most users.
 
 
†:The “Super” (ex., "Super-5-DHEA") signifies a fatty ester attachment to the steroid molecule to assist in bioavailability.
References –
 
1. DHEA treatment for HIV patients: Effects on mood, androgenic and anabolic parameters. 
Rabkin, J., et al. 
Psychoneuro endocrinology. R. 25, 53-68. 2000
 
2. Activation of immune function by dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in age- advanced men. 
Khorram O, et al.
J Gerontol 1997; 52A:M1- M7.
 
3. Effects of replacement dose of dehydroepiandrosterone in men and women of advancing age.
Morales AJ, et al
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1994 Jun;78(6):1360-7. Erratum in: J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1995 Sep;80(9):2799.
 
4. Ergosteroids: induction of thermogenic enzymes in liver of rats treated with steroids derived from dehydroepiandrosterone.
LARDY H, et al. 
Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 92: 6617-6619, 1995.
 
5. Dehydroepiandrosterone: kinetics of metabolism in normal men and women.
Bird CE et al.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1978 Oct;47(4):818-22.
 
6. In vivo conversion of dehydroisoandrosterone to plasma androstenedione and testosterone in man.
Horton R, et al.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1967 Jan;27(1):79-88.
 
7. In vitro metabolism of androgens in whole human blood.
Blaquier et al.
Acta Endocrinol (Copenh). 1967 Aug;55(4):697-704. No abstract available.
 
8. Androgens and anabolic agents
Julius A. Vida
Chemistry and pharmacology (1969) 
 
9. METABOLISM OF ANDROST-4-ENE-3,17-DIONE-4-14C BY RABBIT SKELETAL MUSCLE SUPERNATANT FRACTION. ISOLATION OF 3BETA-HYDROXYANDROST-4-EN-17-ONE-14C AND TESTOSTERONE-14C.
THOMAS et al.
J Biol Chem. 1964 Mar;239:766-72
 
10. Seized designer supplement named “1-Androsterone” identification as 3b-hydroxy-5a-androst-1-en-17-one and its urinary elimination.
Maria K et al.,
Steroids. 2011 Feb 16.
 
11. Circulating bioactive androgens in midlife women.
Chen et al.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Nov;91(11):4387-94. Epub 2006 Aug 29.
 
12. Partial agonist/antagonist properties of androstenedione and 4-androsten-3beta,17beta-diol.
Chen Fet al.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2004 Aug;91(4-5):247-57.
 
13. Direct agonist/antagonist functions of dehydroepiandrosterone.
Chen et al.
Endocrinology. 2005 Nov; 146(11):4568-76. Epub 2005 Jun 30
 
14. Testosterone metabolism revisited: discovery of new metabolites.
Pozo, et al.
Anal Bioanal Chem. 2010 Oct;398(4):1759-70. 
 
15. A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled study of 3 – acetyl – 7 – oxo – dehydroepiandrosterone in healthy overweight adults. 
Kalman, D., et al. 
(2000). Curr. Ther. Res. 61, 435-442.
 
16. The effect of 7 – keto Naturalean on weight loss: A randomized, double blind placebo controlled trial. Zenk, J., et al. 
(2002). Curr. Ther. Res. 63, 263-272.
 
17. Antiglucocorticoid function of androstenetriol. Psychoneuroendocrinology 
Loria RM. Et al.
1997;22 Suppl 1:S103-8.
 
18. Physiological Changes in Dehydroepiandrosterone Are Not Reflected by Serum Levels of Active Androgens and Estrogens But of Their Metabolites: Intracrinology
Fernand Labrie, et al.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997 Aug;82(8):2403-9
 
19. Evaluation of androgen antagonism of estrogen effect by dihydrotestosterone.
Hung TT, et al. 
J Steroid Biochem. 1983 Oct;19(4):1513-20.
 
20. The effects of transdermal dihydrotestosterone in the aging male: a prospective, randomized, double blind study.
Kunelius P, et al.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Apr;87(4):1467-72.
 
21. Comparative activities of compounds of the androsterone-testosterone series.
Deanesly R, et al.
Biochem J. 1936 Feb;30(2):291-303.
 
22. Treatment of persistent pubertal gynecomastia with dihydrotestosterone heptanoate.
Eberle AJ, et al
J Pediatr. 1986 Jul;109(1):144-9.
 
23. Successful percutaneous dihydrotestosterone treatment of gynecomastia occurring during highly active antiretroviral therapy: four cases and a review of the literature.
Benveniste O et al.
Clin Infect Dis. 2001 Sep 15;33(6):891-3. 

1-Androsterone

Diagram of molecule

Chemical Name(s):

1-androsten-3b-ol-17-one
1-Dehydroepiandrosterone
Chemical Formula: C19H28O2
Molecular Weight: NA
CAS: NA
Q Qatio: NA
Anabolic #: NA
Androgenic #: NA
Oral Bioavailability: Estimated at 8%
AR Binding Affinity: NA
SHBG Binding Affinity: NA
Half Life: NA
Legal Status (US): Not listed as a controlled substance
Average Dose:
200-300mg/day Transdermally
400-600mg/day standalone (oral)
200-400mg/day when stacking (oral)
Average Cycle Length: 4-6 weeks

Stimulator
Inhibitor

-5
-4
-3
-2
-1

0
1
2
3
4
5

Muscle Gain

[][]
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1

0
1
2
3
4
5

Strength Gain

[][]
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1

0
1
2
3
4
5

Fat Gain (negative indicates fat loss)

[]
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1

0
1
2
3
4
5

Water Retention (extra-cellular bloat)

[]
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1

0
1
2
3
4
5

Aggression

[]
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1

0
1
2
3
4
5

Libido

[][]
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1

0
1
2
3
4
5

Acne

[]
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1

0
1
2
3
4
5

Hair Loss

[]
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1

0
1
2
3
4
5

Prostate Enlargement

[]
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1

0
1
2
3
4
5

Liver Toxicity

[]
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1

0
1
2
3
4
5

Lethargy

[][][]
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1

0
1
2
3
4
5

Characteristics

1- Androsteronetm (1-DHEA) is a non-methylated (non 17aa) pro-steroid that must convert to 1-androstenediol (1-AD), 1-androstenedione (original 1-AD) and/or 1-testosterone to be active. The double bond in the 1st position seems to slightly enhance its ability to resist excretion by the liver.

1-Androsterone occurs naturally in the body, and is a naturally occurring metabolite of DHEA. (2) The 17b-HSD enzyme converts 1-Androsterone to 1-Androstenediol, and the 3b-HSD converts it to 1-Androstenedione. Both of these 1-AD metabolites can then be converted to 1-Testosterone. Although the 1-AD metabolites are known to have some anabolic and androgenic effects on their own, 1-Testosterone is probably where most of the effects come from with this steroid.

There is no conversion to estrogen so users will not experience bloat with this compound, nor will it have a dramatic effect on blood pressure. However one unique side effect that users have reported with this compound is a feeling of lethargy. (It appears that stacking 1-Androsterone with a nuero-active hormone such as DHEA can help reverse this effect)

1-Androsterone (and primarily its metabolites) have relatively potent androgenic effects, therefore gyno is almost never an issue. However, because of the androgenic potency, this compound could pose a mild hair loss risk for those prone to MPB. Because this steroid is non-17aa there should be less concern about it negatively affecting the HDL/LDL ratio.

Results from this compound generally take a couple weeks to be realized. Moderate gains of lean muscle mass and strength can be expected, but users should not expect rapid increases in size or weight with this compound since extra-cellular and intra-cellular water retention are very minimal. This makes the gains from this steroid fairly easy to maintain post cycle.

1-Androsterone will stack well with almost any compound. For more dramatic gains in size and strength it is recommended to stack this compound with an aromatizing steroid or possibly one of the progestational compounds listed elsewhere.

Common Clones:

1-T by Primordial Performance
1-Androsterone by Advanced Muscle Science (AMS)

Related Discussion

The Official 1-Androsterone Thread
Posted by Eric

References

1. 17beta-hydroxy-5alpha-androst-1-en-3-one (1-testosterone) is a potent androgen with anabolic properties.

A Friedel, et al.
Toxicol Lett, Aug 2006; 165(2): 149-55.

2. “Metabolism of 1-Dehydroandrostanes in Man”
Galletti and Gardi, et al.
J Steroid Biochem, 3 (1972), 933-936

1,4-AD (Boldione)

Diagram of molecule

Chemical Name(s):

1,4-androstadiene-3b,17b-dione
androst-1,4-diene-3b,17b-dione
1,4-Androstenedione
Chemical Formula: C19H24O2
Molecular Weight: 284.4
CAS: NA
Q Qatio: NA
Anabolic #: NA
Androgenic #: NA
Oral Bioavailability: Estimated at 8%
AR Binding Affinity: NA
SHBG Binding Affinity: Low
Half Life: NA
Legal Status (US): Listed as a controlled substance
Average Dose:
800-1500mg/day standalone
400-1000mg/day when stacking
Average Cycle Length: 6 weeks
Stimulator
Inhibitor

-5
-4
-3
-2
-1

0
1
2
3
4
5

Muscle Gain

[][]
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1

0
1
2
3
4
5

Strength Gain

[][]
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1

0
1
2
3
4
5

Fat Gain (negative indicates fat loss)

[]
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1

0
1
2
3
4
5

Water Retention (extra-cellular bloat)

[]
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1

0
1
2
3
4
5

Aggression

[]
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1

0
1
2
3
4
5

Libido

[]
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1

0
1
2
3
4
5

Acne

[]
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1

0
1
2
3
4
5

Hair Loss

[]
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1

0
1
2
3
4
5

Prostate Enlargement

[]
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1

0
1
2
3
4
5

Liver Toxicity

[]
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1

0
1
2
3
4
5

Lethargy

[]
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1

0
1
2
3
4
5

Characteristics

Boldione is NOT a 17-alpha alkylated steroid, therefore high doses must be taken to accommodate for its rapid excretion from the liver.

Boldione itself likely does not have any significant anabolic or androgenic value. However after interaction with the 17b-HSD enzyme, boldione is converted to the illegal anabolic steroid boldenone. Boldione can also be converted to 1-androstenedione (1-AD) and/or 1-testosterone after interaction with the 5a-reductase enzyme. These metabolites are where this pro-hormone gets most of its effects.

Since boldione is a dione, conversions to the more powerful steroid metabolites are expected to be near 15-20%, which is another reason why such high doses are needed to see results.

This pro-hormone (and its metabolites) do not convert very readily to estrogen, so an aromatase inhibitor would likely not be needed during a cycle.

Results can be expected to kick in slowly after several weeks. Moderate gains in size and strength should be expected. This compound also has a tendency to increase appetite, which makes it a good choice for bulking.

Side effects are minimal with boldione, but can become more noticeable with doses above 1000mg/day. Side-effects may include increases blood pressure and oily skin. Overall, results and side-effects would be similar to that of boldenone, including lean mass gains with low bloating. Because this steroid is non-17aa there should be less concern about it negatively affecting the HDL/LDL ratio.

Although this compound can be used as a standalone, it is recommended to stack this compound with an already active steroid, as the high doses of boldione will likely saturate most of the steroid conversion enzymes.

Common Clones:

BOLD by IForce
EQ-Plex by Competitive Edge Labs (CEL)
BOLD 200 by IForce
EQ-Jet by Molecular Development
P-Bold by Proven Products


Related Discussion

The Official 1,4-AD (Boldione) Thread
Posted by Eric

References

“Criteria to distinguish between natural situations and illegal use of boldenone, boldenone esters and boldione in cattle: 1. Metabolite profiles of boldenone, boldenone esters and boldione in cattle urine.”

Bruno Le Bizec, Frédérique Courant, Isabelle Gaudin, Emanuelle Bichon, Blandine Destrez,
Robert Schilt, Rosa Draisci, Fabrice Monteau and François André
Steroids; Volume 71, Issues 13-14, December 2006, Pages 1078-1087


“An
in vitro study on metabolism of 17β-boldenone and boldione using cattle liver and kidney subcellular fractions”
R. Merlanti, G. Gallina, F. Capolongo, L. Contiero, G. Biancotto, M. Dacasto and C. Montesissa

“Pathology of the testicle and sex accessory glands following the administration of boldenone and boldione as growth promoters in veal calves”
Cannizzo, F.T.(Universita degli Studi di Torino (Italy)); Zancanaro, G.; Spada, F.; Mulasso, C.; Biolatti
Nov 2007 Veterinary science and hygiene

Methoxygonadiene

Diagram of molecule

Chemical Name(s):

13-ethyl-3-methoxy-gona-2,5(10)-diene-17-one
13b-ethyl-3-methoxy-2,5 (10)-gona-diene-17-one
Chemical Formula: C20H28O2
Molecular Weight: 300
CAS: NA
Q Qatio: NA
Anabolic #: NA
Androgenic #: NA
Oral Bioavailability: Estimated at 20%
AR Binding Affinity: NA
SHBG Binding Affinity: NA
Half Life: NA
Legal Status (US): Not listed as a controlled substance
Average Dose:
50-75mg/day standalone
25-50mg/day when stacked
Average Cycle Length: 4 weeks
Stimulator
Inhibitor

-5
-4
-3
-2
-1

0
1
2
3
4
5

Muscle Gain

[][][]
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1

0
1
2
3
4
5

Strength Gain

[][]
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1

0
1
2
3
4
5

Fat Gain (negative indicates fat loss)

[][]
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1

0
1
2
3
4
5

Water Retention (extra-cellular bloat)

[][][]
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1

0
1
2
3
4
5

Aggression

[]
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1

0
1
2
3
4
5

Libido

[][]
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1

0
1
2
3
4
5

Acne

[]
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1

0
1
2
3
4
5

Hair Loss

[]
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1

0
1
2
3
4
5

Prostate Enlargement

[]
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1

0
1
2
3
4
5

Liver Toxicity

[]
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1

0
1
2
3
4
5

Lethargy

[]
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1

0
1
2
3
4
5

Characteristics

Methoxygonadiene is not a 17aa steroid so liver toxicity is not as harsh as with 17aa steorids, however the ethyl group on C-18 may make it slightly more toxic than a non-ethylated steroid (while increasing its oral bio-availability). The progestational activity of methoxygonadiene (once it is converted to its active metabolites) is considered to be slightly stronger than nandrolone.

In the stomach acid, the C-3 methoxy group is rapidly cleaved off and the double bond on the A ring at C-2 is lost. At this point, a 3-oxo is formed and a metabolite known as 13b-ethyl-nor-androstenedione is created, which is chemically similar to norbolethone, and probably where this compound gets most of its effects.

13b-ethyl-nor-androstenedione is about equal to testosterone in anabolic potency, yet less androgenic. This would make this compound fairly light on the hairline with minimal chance of acne or other androgenic side-effects.

With low androgenic activity, this compound may negatively affect the libido and erectile function. The lack of androgenic potency and progestational effects make this compound likely to cause gyno symptoms. Users could stack this compound with testosterone or one of its non-aromatizing metabolites to preserve DHT levels and possibly prevent these side-effects.

Users experience rapid weight gain from this compound partly due to subcutaneous water retention from the progestational activity. Therefore the overall gains from this compound may lead to a bloated appearance. Because of the progestational effects, users should avoid stacking this compound with other gyno aggravating compounds. Methoxygonadiene can aromatize to estrogen in small amounts, however not to any significant degree, therefore an aromatase inhibitor would provide little protection against this compounds side-effects.

Common Clones:

Revolt by KiloSports
M-LMG by Competitive Edge Labs (CEL)
X-MASS by Generic Labs
Deiselbolan by Mrsupps


Related Discussion

The Official Methoxygonadiene Thread
Posted by Eric

References

Anabolic Pharmacology
Seth Roberts (2009)

4-DHEA

Diagram of molecule

Chemical Name(s):

1-androsten-3b-ol-17-one
4-Dehydroepiandrosterone
Chemical Formula: C19H28O2
Molecular Weight: 288
CAS: NA
Q Qatio: NA
Anabolic #: NA
Androgenic #: NA
Oral Bioavailability: Estimated at 4%
AR Binding Affinity: NA
SHBG Binding Affinity: NA
Half Life: NA
Legal Status (US): Not listed as a controlled substance
Average Dose:
500-1000mg/day standalone
200-500mg/day when stacked
Average Cycle Length: 4-6 weeks
Stimulator
Inhibitor

-5
-4
-3
-2
-1

0
1
2
3
4
5

Muscle Gain

[][]
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1

0
1
2
3
4
5

Strength Gain

[]
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1

0
1
2
3
4
5

Fat Gain (negative indicates fat loss)

[]
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1

0
1
2
3
4
5

Water Retention (extra-cellular bloat)

[]
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1

0
1
2
3
4
5

Aggression

[]
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1

0
1
2
3
4
5

Libido

[][]
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1

0
1
2
3
4
5

Acne

[]
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1

0
1
2
3
4
5

Hair Loss

[]
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1

0
1
2
3
4
5

Prostate Enlargement

[]
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1

0
1
2
3
4
5

Liver Toxicity

[]
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1

0
1
2
3
4
5

Lethargy

[]
-5
-4
-3
-2
-1

0
1
2
3
4
5

Characteristics

4-DHEA is a naturally occurring non-methylated (non-17aa) pro-steroid.

4-DHEA, like DHEA, requires a 2 step conversion process involving 3b-HSD and 17b-HSD to convert it to Androstenedione/androstenediol, and then testosterone. What makes 4-DHEA slightly different from DHEA is a double bond in the 4th position rather than the 5th. This makes 4-DHEA less estrogenic by not acting directly upon the estrogen receptor like DHEA has been found to do.

Although 4-DHEA can aromatize to estrogen it is probably not enough to cause high estrogen related side-effects.

Overall results will be similar to or the original 4-AD banned back in 2004. Higher doses of this compound will produce fairly lean gains in muscle mass, with moderate improvements in strength. This product may produce some bloat from the estrogen conversion, which could be countered by administering an aromatase inhibitor, but this will largely defeat the purpose of using this compound to begin with.

Since this compound is naturally occurring and non-methylated overall side-effects will be fairly mild. However, high doses may also lead to oily skin, acne and increased blood pressure. Because this steroid is non-17aa there should be less concern about it negatively affecting the HDL/LDL ratio.

Because this compound can convert to testosterone it can also convert to DHT and other 5a-reduced metabolites. This can serve as a good stack with progestational or relatively non-androgenic compounds that may create problems with libido or gyno because of lacking androgenic potency.

Although this compound is relatively safe and moderately effective, its high cost has probably been the reason for its lack of popularity.

Common Clones:

4-AD UTT by Advanced Muscle Science (AMS)


Related Discussion

The Official 4-DHEA Thread
Posted by Eric

References

Anabolic Pharmacology
Seth Roberts (2009)

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