Don’t Get Ripped off by Carbs and Get Ripped with Saturated fat

Which food item builds more muscle? (shown below)

 

 

I am sure most of you are familiar with the common belief that saturated fatty acids are the culprit of obesity and cardiovascular ailments. I am also sure most of you are familiar with the low carbohydrate craze that flooded the media about 10 years ago due to The Atkins Diet. Dr. Atkins ideas were definitely outside of the box, and while not perfect, they were on the right track. The recommended diet for optimal health, according to the original USDA food pyramid from 1992 is a very low-fat, low protein and high carbohydrate based diet. As we know, if this diet was truly nutritionally sound then we wouldn't be facing such a high obesity epidemic at present. It is pretty clear that the nutritional food pyramid is grossly outdated and the public needs to be properly educated on proper nutrition. In actuality, high carbohydrate consumption is truly the explanation for the growing number of people diagnosed with diabetes, high triglycerides, elevated blood pressure and obesity. People need to understand that carbohydrates are not nutritionally essential for survival. Amino acids and fatty acids are mandatory for proper manufacturing of new tissue repair, immune function, hair, skin, nails, cellular integrity, brain, and heart health.

 

Back in the day people survived off of protein and fats

 

For the typical desk job citizen who performs minimal daily activity, getting rid of carbohydrates in place of red meat, eggs and cheese would be in their best interest. As for extreme athletes, like Marathon runners, Football players, Swimmers, and Cyclists involved in high levels of activity, strategic carbohydrate consumption would be extremely advantageous for supplying adequate energy reserves for optimal performance. For the weight lifters, bodybuilders and fitness enthusiast's that want muscular growth and low body fat levels, trading carbohydrates for saturated fats will be extremely conducive to the goal of attaining the ideal physique. Training with weights is not extremely energy demanding and typically only lasts around an hour. Most people train in the low to medium rep range consisting of 6-12 repetitions. This will not require extreme amounts of glucose to effectively and efficiently perform. In fact, once you metabolically shift into relying on protein and fats as your primary energy substrates, you will be able to surprise yourself in the gym and become stronger without carbohydrates. When you are consuming high protein and fats and non-starchy vegetables, you will still be able to accumulate glycogen from trace carbs from protein turnover (gluconeogenesis) and vegetables. By the end of the day, your carb count could add up to 30-70 grams depending on your total

"When you are consuming high protein and fats and non-starchy vegetables, you will still be able to accumulate glycogen from trace carbs from protein turnover (gluconeogenesis) and vegetables."

 

caloric intake and food choices. This is why I recommend people following a low carbohydrate diet to perform cardio in the morning to burn the most body fat, however, since glucose will always be low, you could benefit from cardio at any time of the day. I also advise people to weight train in the evening as you will have built up sufficient glycogen from incidental carbohydrates eaten throughout the day. Keep in mind that you can also derive energy from your creatine phosphate stores and ATP reserves. These powerhouse energy sources come into play on your first few reps during exercise. Once these fuel substrates are depleted, then glycogen will come into play. Creatine phosphate levels will be completely restored after 4 minutes of rest.

_ATP_P = ADP and Energy

_ADP + P = ATP

_Creatine = Supply of P

 

(Creatine Phosphate above)

(Fatty acid oxidation above)

 

The coolest attribute to this way of dieting is that you will be a fat burning machine. You will constantly be mobilizing free fatty acids from the mitochondria and from intra-muscular triglycerides. Making the core of your nutrition plan comprised of lean red meat, whole eggs, cheese, and green vegetables will give you the option of selecting two different scenarios depending on your total caloric intake and energy expenditure. The first scenario is a muscle gaining phase. You will need to be in a high caloric surplus to accrue tissue. You will most likely stay leaner while in that surplus due to your favorable hormonal environment. Your serum insulin levels will be regulated and testosterone output will be optimized. The second scenario is entering a cutting or fat-loss phase. This will require a slight to moderate caloric deficit with less cardio then you would need with higher carbohydrate consumption.

Sample muscle gaining phase caloric equation:        Sample fat loss phase caloric equation:

(Bodyweight x 20 = total calories)                                  (Bodyweight x 13 = total calories)

 

Given the two scenarios, it is clear to understand that you will yield the best results with a protein and saturated fat based diet. You will stay leaner when gaining size and retain more tissue when reaching very low body fat levels, since ketones have been shown to exhibit a muscle sparing effect. An interesting study investigated the ideology that "A calorie is a calorie" is not accurate and The Laws of Thermodynamics do not apply regarding high fat, low carbohydrate diets. The study involved subjects who followed a low carb, higher fat diet and subjects who followed a low fat, high carbohydrate diet. The low carb group ingested a higher caloric value than subjects on a low-fat diet and lost more weight, in addition to burning more calories throughout the day. The low-carb group ate 54 extra calories a day and lost 5.8 kg while the low-fat group lost only 1.9 kg.

Another researcher discovered that people eating 300 extra calories a day on a low-carb diet lost a similar amount of weight. Another study I will mention is one regarding a 6-week very low carbohydrate diet and its effects on total and regional body composition. Results revealed some amazing details. Fat mass was decreased (-3.4 kg) while lean body mass substantially increased (+1.1 kg) at the end of the 6 week trial. Researchers believed that the fat loss can be attributed to decreased serum insulin levels and increased fatty acid oxidation due to elevated beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations. This proves that a calorie is not always a calorie and different macronutrients influence specific metabolic actions in the body once consumed.

References:    

1.)Kennedy ARPissios POtu HRoberson RXue BAsakura KFurukawa NMarino FELiu FFKahn BBLibermann TAMaratos-Flier E, A high-fat, ketogenic diet induces a unique metabolic state in mice.Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Jun;292(6):E1724-39. Epub 2007 Feb 13.

 

2.)Pérez-Guisado J, Ketogenic diets and weight loss: basis and effectiveness. Arch Latinoam Nutr. 2008 Jun;58(2):126-31

3.)Yancy WS JrOlsen MKGuyton JRBakst RPWestman EC, A low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet versus a low-fat diet to treat obesity and hyperlipidemia: a randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med. 2004 May 18;140(10):769-77.

4.)Feinman RD, Fein EJ. "A calorie is a calorie" violates the second law of thermodynamicsNutr J. 2004;3:9. doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-3-9

5.)Volek JS, Sharman MJ, Cómez AL, et al. Comparison of energy-restricted very-low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets on weight loss and body composition in overweight men and women. Nutr Metab (Lond) 2004

6.)Mayo Clinic (2003, November 12). High Saturated Fat, Starch Avoidance Weight Loss Diet Offers Good Preliminary Results.
ScienceDaily (Nov. 12, 2003).

7.)Denise Gellene | Times Staff Writer, Low-fat diet not tops for weight loss. Subjects on the Atkins and Mediterranean regimens lost more in an Atkins Foundation- aided study. July 17, 2008.

8.)Essen-Gustavsson, B. & Tesch, P. A. 1990. Glycogen and triglyceride
utilization in relation to muscle metabolic characteristics in men performing heavy-resistance exercise
. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 61, 5-10.

9.)Anssi H Manninen, Very-low-carbohydrate diets and preservation of muscle mass. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2006; 3: 9. Published online 2006 January 31. doi: 10.1186/1743-7075-3-9.

10.)Vazquez JA, Adibi SA. Protein sparing during treatment of obesity: ketogenic versus non-ketogenic very low calorie diet. Metabolism. 1992;41:401–14

11.)Manninen AH.
Is a calorie really a calorie? Metabolic advantage of low-carbohydrate diets. J Int Soc
Sports Nutr. 2004;1:21–26

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Ghrelin Hormone: An Ectomorph’s Solution to Muscular Weight Gain

The endogenous growth hormone secretagogue Ghrelin may play a paramount role in your quest for muscle growth. This gastric hormone stimulates hunger in mice and in humans by binding to the ghrelin receptors located in the hypothalamus and the hippocampus.


Reasons why people feel the urge to eat

Ghrelin is highest when blood sugar is low and being in a fasted state. Ghrelin is a potent endogenous growth hormone releaser, and is the strongest of the secretagogues. Even though it increases growth hormone release, some of its effects are quite different from growth hormone itself. Ghrelin encourages lipogenesis, whereas growth hormone supports lypolysis. Ghrelin also supports glucose oxidation, while growth hormone suppresses insulin production for inhibited glucose disposal. This equates to ghrelin being highly effective for weight gain through adipogenic pathways and growth hormone supporting weight loss through lipolytic pathways.

Ghrelin Effects:                                            Synthetic Growth Hormone Effects:

-Increases endogenous GH                                -Synthetically derived

-Encourages lipogenesis (fat gain)                     -Encourages lipolysis (fat loss)

-Increases glucose oxidation                             -May promote insulin resistance

-Great for weight gain                                       -Great for fat loss

Knowing such facts makes it very clear that ghrelin would be perfect for the ectomorphic, hard gainer body type. If you are someone who frequents the bodybuilding internet forums, then you are probably aware of the recent surge in popularity with research peptide companies. These companies sell a product called GHRP-6, which is a hexapeptide comprised of 28 amino acids that signals the pituitary to secrete growth hormone through increasing ghrelin production. Using GHRP-6 in conjunction with a regimented weight training program and a meticulously planned diet, the ectomorphic trainee could consume copious amounts of high quality nutrients to achieve muscular weight gain that once seemed impossible.

– I must  mention one must be very stringent and meticulous with whom they decide to research with, meaning make sure the company is of high quality and the peptides are USA grade ingredients. A company such as Southern Research Co. has a trusted reputation and  is held in high regard in the research peptide community. 

 

References

1.) Cordido, Fernando; Isidro, Maria L.; Nemina, Rosa; Sangiao-Alvarellos, Susana, Ghrelin and Growth Hormone Secretagogues, Physiological and Pharmacological Aspect. Volume 6, Number 1, March 2009 , pp. 34-42(9)

2.) .Cummings DE, Weigle DS, Frayo RS, Breen PA, Ma MK, Dellinger EP, Purnell JQ, Plasma ghrelin levels after diet-induced weight loss or gastric bypass surgery.
N Engl J Med. 2002 May 23;346(21):1623-30.

3.) Britt Edén Engström, Pia Burman, Camilla Holdstock and F. Anders Karlsson,
Effects of Growth Hormone (GH) on Ghrelin, Leptin, and Adiponectin in GH-Deficient Patients. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Vol. 88, No. 11 5193-5198

The best muscle building protein drink available

After siphoning through several research papers and experimenting with numerous protein formula’s I found the answer…

 “What is the best protein drink for gaining muscle?”

I will briefly go over the common protein powder sources that are highly available and readily used by most health and fitness enthusiast. I WILL NOT expand too much on each type of protein as this article isn’t a long winded “fact sheet.”

Most people involved in the health/fitness and Bodybuilding industry are all too familiar with whey protein, namely whey protein concentrate (WPC) & whey protein isolate (WPI). Both of these whey proteins are considered “fast digesting” and have a high biological value (91). WPI & WPC are typically used pre & post training or anytime someone needs a fast and efficient protein source in their body.

Also highly sought after are the “slower digesting proteins” such as calcium caseinate and micellar casein, with a slightly lower biological value than WPI &WPC (77). These milk proteins are highly regarded as “night time” protein for their slow and steady amino acid delivery.

Recently, peptide based proteins have generated a lot of buzz due to their potential to be rapidly taken up into the blood stream, virtually by-passing the digestion process.Whey protein hydrolysate and casein hydrolysate (PeptoPro) are the 2 proteins that fall into this category. These hydrolyzed versions of whey and casein contain fragments of protein chains composed of 2-3 amino acids (di, tri & oligo) which are instantaneously absorbed and elevate blood
amino acid levels sky high.

A recent study compared both whey and casein and their effects on muscle protein synthesis (MPS) following resistance training.

The study used 17 healthy, young males as test subjects. They were devoid of medical ailments and were all in great physical condition. The subjects were randomized to participate in either 2 protein trials in randomized order or one control trial. protein trial group, 9 men and control trial group, 8 men.

The subjects came into the test facility all in a fasted state and underwent heavy resistance training consisting of 10 sets of 8 repetitions at a predetermined load corresponding to 80% of 1RM.

Post exercise, (within 5 minutes) the participants consumed either water, casein or whey protein.

The amount of protein ingested was 20 grams dissolved into 400 ml of water.

Some cool observations were notated –

Researchers found that whey protein –

  • Spiked IGF-1 concentrations instantly and peaked at 30  minutes
  • Spiked insulin concentrations from 15 – 60 minutes
  • Elicited a Stronger myofibrillar FSR increase immediately post exercise
  • Induces a stronger protein synthesis response in the early post workout period compared to casein

Researchers found that casein protein

  • Did not have profound effects on insulin release
  • Elevated myofibrillar FSR steadily over 6h period opposed to whey
  • Had better anti-catabolic effects than whey protein

On a side note:

The same study did touch base on some fascinating information regarding micellar casein and whey & casein hydrolysates.

Whey hydrolysate elicited an even greater initial spike in muscle protein synthesis FSR than regular whey.

Micellar casein elicited an even slower and longer lasting muscle protein synthesis FSR compared to regular casein.

The very slow micellar casein and the very fast casein hydrolysate (PeptoPro) results in SIMILAR muscle protein synthesis response in the 6h postprandial period, with the casein hydrolysate having the largest MPS response in the early stages.

The conclusion of the study was obvious in the fact that whey initially
spiked MPS immediately and then quickly plummeted downward after the initial spike,
casein spiked MPS more moderately with a more prolonged elevation as time
passed. Immediate intake of whey and casein following heavy resistance training
in young men results in SIMILAR MPS response over the subsequent 6-h recovery
period.

Now – Back to the question of “What is the best protein drink for gaining muscle?”

From my research and personal, empirical experience I believe it is in one’s best interest to utilize a protein supplement that contains a ratio of 50% cold-filtered whey protein isolate & 35% micellar casein or Australian caseinate, and 15% hydrolyzed whey peptides.

Combining both FAST and SLOW assimilating, high quality protein sources have yielded the best results for not only me, but clients as well. You get the benefit of initial high blood amino acid levels and insulinogenic response from whey protein isolate & hydrolyzed whey peptides, then the micellar casein or Australian caseinate sustains blood amino acid levels for up to 7 hours, which elicits an anti-catabolic effect.

Australian Casein Benefits
  • Superior Amino Acid Profile compared to regular casein
  • Higher Glutamine Content compared to regular casein
  • 4.5% Higher Protein Content compared to regular casein
  • Superior Solubility compared to regular casein (mix with a spoon)

I also find it advantageous to consume casein hydrolysate (PeptoPro) DURING your training session to keep blood amino acid levels elevated while not disrupting your gastro-intestinal tract, due to peptide proteins being pre-digested.

 References:

1.    Calbet JA, Holst JJ. Gastric emptying, gastric secretion and enterogastrone response after administration of milk proteins or their peptide hydrolysates in humans. Eur J Nutr. 2004 Jun;43(3):127-39. Epub 2004 Jan 6.

2.    Koopman R, Crombach N, Gijsen AP, Walrand S, Fauquant J, Kies AK, Lemosquet S, Saris WH, Boirie Y, van Loon LJ. Ingestion of a protein hydrolysate is accompanied by an accelerated in vivo digestion and absorption rate when compared with its intact protein. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Jul;90(1):106-15. Epub 2009 May 27.

3.    Tang JE, Moore DR, Kujbida GW, Tarnopolsky MA, Phillips SM. Ingestion of whey hydrolysate, casein, or soy protein isolate: effects on mixed muscle protein synthesis at rest and following resistance exercise in young men. J Appl Physiol. 2009 Sep;107(3):987-92. Epub 2009 Jul 9.

4.     Paul J. Cribb; Andrew D. Williams; Michael F. Carey; Alan Hayes Full Article Table of Contents for Vol. 16, Iss. 5 The Effect of Whey Isolate and Resistance Training on Strength, Body Composition, and Plasma Glutamine.  IJSNEM, 16(5), October 2006, Copyright © 2006

5.     Beelen M, Koopman R, Gijsen AP, Vandereyt H, Kies AK, Kuipers H, Saris WH, van Loon LJ. Protein coingestion stimulates muscle protein synthesis during resistance-type exercise. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Jul;295(1):E70-7. Epub 2008 Apr 22.

 

Avoid Carbs and Stimulate Amino Acids Uptake

best post workout mealFebruary 19th. 2010 – You’ve probably heard that eating a high carbohydrate meal after training is better than a low carb meal. However, this may not be the case. Keeping post-exercise carbohydrate consumption low can prolong the nutrient uptake window created from training (via increased insulin sensitivity). (1) This is because training increases the muscle cells demand for nutrients, including amino acids, for repair and sugars to replace muscle glycogen.

The resulting increase in insulin sensitivity after exercise enhances the flow of nutrients to the muscle cells in need, as well as increases the use of fat as an energy source since sugars are not available. As glycogen stores fill up, however, the cells ability to take up amino acids (for growth) and fat (for fuel) will decrease.

The idea behind the high carb theory is that when you exercise, you use up muscle glycogen. The most efficient way to replenish your glycogen stores is through carbohydrate intake. If your training frequency has you exercising several times a day or every few hours, you’ll need too replace your energy stores more quickly to prepare your body for the next workout, and eating more carbs post exercise will help. If, on the other hand, you train once per day or several times a week and are more concerned with body composition, a carbohydrate restricted eating approach may prove more effective.

References –

1. Amino Acids & Proteins for the Athlete

Mauro D. Pasquale

Taylor And Francis Group 2008 Pages 356-358

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