Your Testosterone Levels — Killing or helping you?

If you haven't gotten your testosterone level, then visit the AndroStat now.
To see what others are saying about the AndroStat, visit this thread.

If you have your testosterone level, here is what it means –

Ready to get in your zone with the AndroSeries?

Just fill out the AndroStat, and get linked to the AndroStacker to start building your AndroSeries stack. Your testosterone level will be automatically filled in, or if you already tested you can link back to the androstat from your email.

We've taken the "testosterone equivalent" values of our AndroSeries products and built them into the AndroStacker program. This allows you to build a stack of AndroSeries products and see the benefits, side-effects and "androgen zone" — so you can make sure you are taking the optimal dose for your custom goals with minimal side-effects.

References:
1. Estrogen and androgen receptors: regulators of fuel homeostasis and emerging targets for diabetes and obesity.
Mauvais-Jarvis F.
Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Jan;22(1):24-33. Epub 2010 Nov 5.

2. Tissue-specific glucocorticoid reactivating enzyme, 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11 beta-HSD1)–a promising drug target for the treatment of metabolic syndrome.
Masuzaki H, et al.
Curr Drug Targets Immune Endocr Metabol Disord. 2003 Dec;3(4):255-62.

3. Testosterone deficiency and the metabolic syndrome.
Lunenfeld B.
Aging Male. 2007 Jun;10(2):53-6.

4. Gender differences in the cardiovascular effect of sex hormones.
Vitale C, et al
Nat Rev Cardiol. 2009 Aug;6(8):532-42. Epub 2009 Jun 30.

5. The male climacterium: clinical signs and symptoms of a changing endocrine environment.
van den Beld AW, et al.
Prostate Suppl. 2000;10:2-8.

6. Androgens and body fat distribution in men.
Pi-Sunyer FX.
Obes Res. 1993 Jul;1(4):303-5.

7. Androgens and body fat distribution.
Blouin K, et al.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2008 Feb;108(3-5):272-80. Epub 2007 Sep 7.

8. Testosterone and regional fat distribution.
Mårin P.
Obes Res. 1995 Nov;3 Suppl 4:609S-612S.

9. Two emerging concepts for elite athletes: the short-term effects of testosterone and cortisol on the neuromuscular system and the dose-response training role of these endogenous hormones.
Crewther BT, et al.
Sports Med. 2011 Feb 1;41(2):103-23. doi: 10.2165/11539170-000000000-00000.

10. Body composition and anthropometry in bodybuilders: regional changes due to nandrolone decanoate administration.
Hartgens F, et al.
Int J Sports Med. 2001 Apr;22(3):235-41.

11. Comparison of the effects of high dose testosterone and 19-nortestosterone to a replacement dose of testosterone on strength and body composition in normal men.
Friedl KE, et al.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1991;40(4-6):607-12.

12. Breaking the vicious circle of obesity: the metabolic syndrome and low testosterone by administration of testosterone to a young man with morbid obesity.
Tishova Y, et al.
Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol. 2009 Nov;53(8):1047-51.

13. Testosterone Threshold Levels and Lean Tissue Mass Targets Needed to Enhance Skeletal Muscle Strength and Function: The HORMA Trial.
Sattler, F et al.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2011 Jan;66(1):122-9.

14. Androstenedione does not stimulate muscle protein anabolism in young healthy men.
Rasmussen BB, et al.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Jan;85(1):55-9.

15. Effect of oral androstenedione on serum testosterone and adaptations to resistance training in young men: a randomized controlled trial.
King DS, et al.
JAMA. 1999 Jun 2;281(21):2020-8.

16. Effects of anabolic precursors on serum testosterone concentrations and adaptations to resistance training in young men.
Brown GA, et al.
Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2000 Sep;10(3):340-59.

17. Testosterone dose-response relationships in healthy young men.
Bhasin S, et al.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Dec;281(6):E1172-81.

18. Comparative pharmacokinetics of testosterone enanthate and testosterone cyclohexanecarboxylate as assessed by serum and salivary testosterone levels in normal men.
Schürmeyer T, et al.
Int J Androl. 1984 Jun;7(3):181-7.

19. Correlates of low testosterone and symptomatic androgen deficiency in a population-based sample.
Hall SA, et al.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Oct;93(10):3870-7. Epub 2008 Jul 29.

20. Hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis disruptions in older men are differentially linked to age and modifiable risk factors: the European Male Aging Study.
Wu FC, et al.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Jul;93(7):2737-45. Epub 2008 Feb 12.

21. Prevalence of and risk factors for androgen deficiency in middle-aged men in Hong Kong.
Wong SY, et al.
Metabolism. 2006 Nov;55(11):1488-94.

22. Measures of bioavailable serum testosterone and estradiol and their relationships with muscle strength, bone density, and body composition in elderly men.
van den Beld AW, et al.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Sep;85(9):3276-82.

23. Hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis disruptions in older men are differentially linked to age and modifiable risk factors: the European Male Aging Study.
Wu FC, et al.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Jul;93(7):2737-45. Epub 2008 Feb 12.

24. Correlates of low testosterone and symptomatic androgen deficiency in a population-based sample.
Hall SA, et al.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Oct;93(10):3870-7. Epub 2008 Jul 29.

25. Androgen treatment of abdominally obese men.
Mårin P, et al.
Obes Res. 1993 Jul;1(4):245-51.

26. Testosterone, body composition and aging.
Vermeulen A, et al.
J Endocrinol Invest. 1999;22(5 Suppl):110-6.

27. Effects of testosterone on body composition, bone metabolism and serum lipid profile in middle-aged men: a meta-analysis.
Isidori AM, et al.
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2005 Sep;63(3):280-93.

28. Treatment of 161 men with symptomatic late onset hypogonadism with long-acting parenteral testosterone undecanoate: effects on body composition, lipids, and psychosexual complaints.
Permpongkosol S, et al.
J Sex Med. 2010 Nov;7(11):3765-74. doi: 10.1111/j.1743-6109.2010.01994.x. Epub 2010 Aug 30.

29. Effects of testosterone undecanoate on cardiovascular risk factors and atherosclerosis in middle-aged men with late-onset hypogonadism and metabolic syndrome: results from a 24-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.
Aversa A, et al.
J Sex Med. 2010 Oct;7(10):3495-503. doi: 10.1111/j.1743-6109.2010.01931.x.

30. Effects of testosterone supplementation on markers of the metabolic syndrome and inflammation in hypogonadal men with the metabolic syndrome: the double-blinded placebo-controlled Moscow study.
Kalinchenko SY, et al.
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2010 Nov;73(5):602-12. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2265.2010.03845.x.

31. Dose-dependent effects of testosterone on regional adipose tissue distribution in healthy young men.
Woodhouse LJ, et al.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Feb;89(2):718-26.

32. The erythrocythaemic effects of androgen.
Gardner FH, et al.
Br J Haematol. 1968 Jun;14(6):611-5.

The AndroStat and why it matters

If you haven’t completed the AndroStat questionaire, please check it out here –
http://www.primordialperformance.com/store/androstat/

To see what others are saying about the AndroStat, visit this thread.

What is the AndroStat?

The AndroStat is a questionnaire designed to estimate your average total testosterone level.

It has proven to be exceptionally accurate for predicting the average total testosterone levels in men — being anywhere from 80-100% correlated to lab values for most men.

In fact, we predict that the AndroStat can give a more accurate assessment of your average monthly total testosterone level than a single blood test from the lab.

How can the AndroStat be more accurate than a blood test?

Simply because a blood test is not a true representation of your average monthly or daily testosterone levels. Rather, a single blood test only represents your testosterone level at that very moment.

Research shows that testosterone varies by as much as 25% throughout the day, or possibly even more given physiological or environmental influences. (43,44) For instance, very few individuals enjoy blood tests, and some can become quite anxiety ridden even thinking about blood tests — which can quickly reduce testosterone by causing an immediate surge in stress hormones.

Things that can immediately influence blood testosterone levels include –

  • Stress/anxiety associated with the test itself
  • Quality of sleep from the night before
  • Drug use
  • Exercise
  • Meals

Any of these factors can negatively influence testosterone levels and give a result that is not truly representational of your average daily testosterone levels.

How does the AndroStat estimate total testosterone levels?

The AndroStat calculates total testosterone levels based on data gathered from dozens of studies, including thousands of men. It takes into account a large number of testosterone altering variables including age, body composition, BMI, smoking, exercise, stress, socioeconomic status, etc. The data from the studies was combined in to a mathematical equation that make up the power formula behind the AndroStat. (1-24)

During the development of the AndroStat, we had our AndroSeries v3 product testers (15+) and a number of volunteers complete the questionnaire, and verified the results against their actual blood values for total testosterone. We used this random sampling to verify and calibrate the AndroStat formula for a high degree of accuracy.

Editorial note: Id like to give special credit to Ken Hess, who painstakingly cross examined dozens of research papers to find the strongest correlates for predicting total testosterone levels.

What does the AndroStat have to do with AndroSeries products?

Knowing your testosterone levels helps determine the optimal dose for AndroSeries products.

For instance, men with low androgens (e.g. testosterone) will naturally get more benefit from a lower dose — partly because they are more sensitive to the effects of androgens — and they don’t need as high of a dose to surpass the androgen threshold.

On the other hand, men with higher androgen levels will require a higher dose to see the same dramatic benefits — partly because they are accustomed to the effects of high/normal androgens — and they need a higher dose to surpass the androgen threshold.

NOTE: Many of the immediate effects, like increased sex drive or aggression may not be noticeable to a man with high androgen levels — as these aspects may already be optimized, where further androgens may offer no additional benefit. However, these men can still reap physical benefits from androgen supplementation. These are considered the long-term benefits from androgens.

What is the "androgen threshold"?

The "androgen threshold" is the amount you need to boost your androgen levels in order to see significant improvements in body composition and strength. (25-27)

Research shows that androgen levels (e.g. testosterone) must increase by 1000-1300ng/dl above your current level, to increase lean body mass by 10%, drop total body fat by 10%, and increase strength by 30%. (25-27) This research is based on androgen supplementation for a 16 week period, with no dietary or training intervention. However, research suggests that combining androgens with exercise and dietary intervention can accelerate the achievement of these results. (28-30)

Consider this example subject –

Beginning stats

  • 175lbs with 500ng/dL total testosterone
  • 35lbs body fat (20%)
  • 140lbs lean body mass (80%)

Subject increases his androgen levels to 2700ng/dL (6 softgels of AndroMass for 8 weeks)

Stats after 8 weeks on AndroMass

  • 186lbs with 2700ng/dL Testosterone
  • 32lbs body fat (17%)
  • 154lbs lean body mass (83%)

Therefore, since this subject increased his androgen levels by 2200ng/dL above his natural androgen level the subject was able to reduce his body fat by about 9% and increase his lean body mass by about 10%. These results may be considered normal results from an 8 week cycle of AndroMass combined with resistance training and a lean muscle promoting diet.

I got my AndroStat results, but what do they mean?

Please refer to the Your Testosterone Levels — Killing or helping you? article for interpretation of your testosterone levels.

How much will the AndroSeries products increase my "testosterone"?

AndroSeries products are rated based on "testosterone equivalent" values. This value represents the total combined androgenic, anabolic and estrogenic bio-activity for the 24hr period.

In other words, we have gone through the painstaking effort to calculate the power of each AndroSeries pill relative to its total "testosterone-like" activity.

Here are the "testosterone equivalent" values established for the AndroSeries products –

  • AndroDrive – 217 ng/dL
  • AndroHard – 375 ng/dL
  • AndroLean – 334 ng/dL
  • AndroMass – 450 ng/dL
  • AndroBulk – 450 ng/dL

The reason for using a "testosterone equivalent" value is to give a realistic expectation of results and effects that will be noticed relative to other popular forms of testosterone, such as injectable, topical or oral testosterone. It is important to note; AndroSeries products do not work by increasing testosterone levels alone. Rather, AndroSeries exert most of their effects by converting to other androgens which have similar effects as testosterone — resulting in similar effects on the body. (31-42)

Finally, these values only represent TOTAL combined androgenic, anabolic and estrogenic effects. Remember, each AndroSeries product has a different ratio of androgenic, anabolic and estrogenic effects — as seen here in the AndroSeries Effects Chart.

How do I determine proper dosages for AndroSeries products?

Just fill out the AndroStat, and get linked to the AndroStacker to start building your AndroSeries stack. Your testosterone level is automatically filled in. If you already tested you can link back to the AndroStacker from your email.

Simply click on the items you want to use, and adjust the dosage and cycle length until your desired cycle is created. Click buy. Done!

Need more help. No problem. Just give us a call

Questions?

Talk to a product specialist in Live Chat
Call us – 1-503-841-6702
Email us – info@primordialperformance.com
Or get registered for our free forum

 

 

References –
1. Testosterone deficiency and the metabolic syndrome.
Lunenfeld B.
Aging Male. 2007 Jun;10(2):53-6.

2. The male climacterium: clinical signs and symptoms of a changing endocrine environment.
van den Beld AW, et al.
Prostate Suppl. 2000;10:2-8.

3. Androgens and body fat distribution in men.
Pi-Sunyer FX.
Obes Res. 1993 Jul;1(4):303-5.

4. Androgens and body fat distribution.
Blouin K, et al.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2008 Feb;108(3-5):272-80. Epub 2007 Sep 7.

5. Testosterone and regional fat distribution.
Mårin P.
Obes Res. 1995 Nov;3 Suppl 4:609S-612S.

6. Two emerging concepts for elite athletes: the short-term effects of testosterone and cortisol on the neuromuscular system and the dose-response training role of these endogenous hormones.
Crewther BT, et al.
Sports Med. 2011 Feb 1;41(2):103-23. doi: 10.2165/11539170-000000000-00000.

7. Breaking the vicious circle of obesity: the metabolic syndrome and low testosterone by administration of testosterone to a young man with morbid obesity.
Tishova Y, et al.
Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol. 2009 Nov;53(8):1047-51.

8. Correlates of low testosterone and symptomatic androgen deficiency in a population-based sample.
Hall SA, et al.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Oct;93(10):3870-7. Epub 2008 Jul 29.

9. Hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis disruptions in older men are differentially linked to age and modifiable risk factors: the European Male Aging Study.
Wu FC, et al.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Jul;93(7):2737-45. Epub 2008 Feb 12.

10. Prevalence of and risk factors for androgen deficiency in middle-aged men in Hong Kong.
Wong SY, et al.
Metabolism. 2006 Nov;55(11):1488-94.

11. Measures of bioavailable serum testosterone and estradiol and their relationships with muscle strength, bone density, and body composition in elderly men.
van den Beld AW, et al.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Sep;85(9):3276-82.

12. Hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis disruptions in older men are differentially linked to age and modifiable risk factors: the European Male Aging Study.
Wu FC, et al.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Jul;93(7):2737-45. Epub 2008 Feb 12.

13. Correlates of low testosterone and symptomatic androgen deficiency in a population-based sample.
Hall SA, et al.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Oct;93(10):3870-7. Epub 2008 Jul 29.

14. Androgen treatment of abdominally obese men.
Mårin P, et al.
Obes Res. 1993 Jul;1(4):245-51.

15. Testosterone, body composition and aging.
Vermeulen A, et al.
J Endocrinol Invest. 1999;22(5 Suppl):110-6.

16. Effects of testosterone on body composition, bone metabolism and serum lipid profile in middle-aged men: a meta-analysis.
Isidori AM, et al.
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2005 Sep;63(3):280-93.

17. Treatment of 161 men with symptomatic late onset hypogonadism with long-acting parenteral testosterone undecanoate: effects on body composition, lipids, and psychosexual complaints.
Permpongkosol S, et al.
J Sex Med. 2010 Nov;7(11):3765-74. doi: 10.1111/j.1743-6109.2010.01994.x. Epub 2010 Aug 30.

18. Effects of testosterone undecanoate on cardiovascular risk factors and atherosclerosis in middle-aged men with late-onset hypogonadism and metabolic syndrome: results from a 24-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.
Aversa A, et al.
J Sex Med. 2010 Oct;7(10):3495-503. doi: 10.1111/j.1743-6109.2010.01931.x.

19. Effects of testosterone supplementation on markers of the metabolic syndrome and inflammation in hypogonadal men with the metabolic syndrome: the double-blinded placebo-controlled Moscow study.
Kalinchenko SY, et al.
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2010 Nov;73(5):602-12. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2265.2010.03845.x.

20. Long term perturbation of endocrine parameters and cholesterol metabolism after discontinued abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids.
Gårevik N, et al.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2011 Aug 22. [Epub ahead of print]

21. Effect of long-term testosterone oenanthate administration on male reproductive function: clinical evaluation, serum FSH, LH, testosterone, and seminal fluid analyses in normal men.
Mauss J, et al.
Acta Endocrinol (Copenh). 1975 Feb;78(2):373-84.

22. Testicular responsiveness to human chorionic godadotrophin during transient hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism induced by androgenic/anabolic steroids in power athletes
Hannu et al.
J. Steroid Biochem. Vol. 25, No. 1 pp. 109-112 (1986)

23. The relationship between pubertal gynecomastia, prostate specific antigen, free androgen index, SHBG and sex steroids.
Kilic M, et al.
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2011;24(1-2):61-7.

24. Anabolic steroids purchased on the Internet as a cause of prolonged hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.
Pirola I, et al.
Fertil Steril. 2010 Nov;94(6):2331.e1-3. Epub 2010 Apr 22.

25. Testosterone dose-response relationships in healthy young men.
Bhasin S, et al.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Dec;281(6):E1172-81.

26. Dose-dependent effects of testosterone on regional adipose tissue distribution in healthy young men.
Woodhouse LJ, et al.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Feb;89(2):718-26.

27. Testosterone Threshold Levels and Lean Tissue Mass Targets Needed to Enhance Skeletal Muscle Strength and Function: The HORMA Trial.
Sattler, F et al.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2011 Jan;66(1):122-9.

28. Effects of anabolic steroids on the muscle cells of strength-trained athletes.
Kadi F, et al.
Med Sci Sports Exerc 31:1528–1534. (1999)

29. Testosterone-induced increase in muscle size in healthy young men is associated with muscle fiber hypertrophy.
Sinha-Hikim I, et al.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 283:E154–E164 (2002)

30. Comparison of the effects of high dose testosterone and 19-nortestosterone to a replacement dose of testosterone on strength and body composition in normal men.
Friedl KE, et al.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1991;40(4-6):607-12.

31. Conversion of androsterone ester to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) — with 10 hour pharmacokinetics
Draws performed by AnyLabTestNow, 714 SW Washington St, Portland, OR 97205 ,  July 2011.
Analysis performed by S.E.D. Medical Laboratories.
(Contact Primordial Performance for full report)

32. In vivo conversion of dehydroisoandrosterone to plasma androstenedione and testosterone in man.
Horton R, et al.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1967 Jan;27(1):79-88.

33. In vitro metabolism of androgens in whole human blood.
Blaquier et al.
Acta Endocrinol (Copenh). 1967 Aug;55(4):697-704. No abstract available.

34. METABOLISM OF ANDROST-4-ENE-3,17-DIONE-4-14C BY RABBIT SKELETAL MUSCLE SUPERNATANT FRACTION. ISOLATION OF 3BETA-HYDROXYANDROST-4-EN-17-ONE-14C AND TESTOSTERONE-14C.
THOMAS et al.
J Biol Chem. 1964 Mar;239:766-72. No abstract available

35. Direct agonist/antagonist functions of dehydroepiandrosterone.
Chen et al.
Endocrinology. 2005 Nov; 146(11):4568-76. Epub 2005 Jun 30

36. Serum androgen bioactivity during 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone treatment in elderly men.
Raivio et al.
J Androl. 2002 Nov-Dec;23(6):919-21.

37. In vitro bioassays for androgens and their diagnostic applications.
Roy et al.
Hum Reprod Update. 2008 Jan-Feb;14(1):73-82. Epub 2007 Dec 4.

38. Determination of androgen bioactivity in human serum samples using a recombinant cell based in vitro bioassay.
Roy et al.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2006 Sep; 101(1):68-77. Epub 2006 Aug 8.

39. Circulating bioactive androgens in midlife women.
Chen et al.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Nov;91(11):4387-94. Epub 2006 Aug 29.

40. Partial agonist/antagonist properties of androstenedione and 4-androsten-3beta,17beta-diol.
Chen Fet al.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2004 Aug;91(4-5):247-57.

41. Delta-4-androstene-3,17-dione binds androgen receptor, promotes myogenesis in vitro, and increases serum testosterone levels, fat-free mass, and muscle strength in hypogonadal men.
Jasuja R, et al.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005 Feb;90(2):855-63. Epub 2004 Nov 2.

42. In vivo MRI evaluation of anabolic steroid precursor growth effects in a guinea pig model.
Tang H, et al
Steroids. 2009 Aug;74(8):684-93. Epub 2009 Mar 20.

43. Biological day-to-day variation and daytime changes of testosterone, follitropin, lutropin and oestradiol-17beta in healthy men.
Ahokoski O, et al.
Clin Chem Lab Med. 1998 Jun;36(7):485-91.

44. Mean plasma concentration, metabolic clearance and basal plasma production rates of testosterone in normal young men and women using a constant infusion procedure: effect of time of day and plasma concentration on the metabolic clearance rate of testosterone.
Southren AL, et al.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1967 May;27(5):686-94.

Whats new with AndroSeries v3?

Its been nearly a year since the initial release of the AndroSeries products, yet we are back with major changes, outdoing ourselves all over again.

We hope you enjoy all the improvements of AndroSeries v3.

Major improvements for ALL products:

  1. Once per day dosing: Semi-solid liquid delivers timed released androgens for convenient dosing.
     
  2. Reduced testicular shrinkage: 24hr timed release effect mimics the body’s natural androgen release. This reduces testicular shutdown and improves recovery time.
     
  3. No lethargy or brain-fog: We improved the ratio of GABAergic isomers to eliminate the occurrence of general "tiredness" and "lethargy" reported by certain AndroHard and AndroMass users.
     
  4. Improved retention of libido: The improved ratio of GABAergic isomers, and removal of Super-1-DHEA  supports a more normalized libido. (AndroMass & AndroHard)
     
  5. Increased correlation of "Testosterone equivalent" to real world results: Case reports of AndroSeries v3 revealed a strong correlation to our re-calculated "testosterone equivalent" values.
     
  6. Safety data backed by comprehensive blood data:  Over 15 healthy male subjects where recruited for 4-8 week cycles of the AndroSeries v3 products for comprehensive pre, during and post blood analyses. (e.g. liver, kidney, cholesterol, metabolic function, etc) Full case reports can be found on the product pages.
     
  7. Eliminated/reduced post dose nausea: Previous generation of AndroSeries v2 had a 5-10% likelihood of causing immediate nausea or vomiting for individuals sensitive to the grapefruit content. Now, AndroSeries v3 contains a timed-release dose of organic grapefruit, showing elimination of negative reactions in sensitive individuals.
     

Additional  improvements for specific products:

  1. AndroLean: New AndroLean is up to 4x stronger than the previous version. The addition of high dosed 11-oxo-testosterone (Super-11-DHEA) dramatically increases the anabolic potency, while 2x more Super-7-DHEA enhances the thermogenic power.
     
  2. AndroHard: New AndroHard has 2x more active ingredient than the previous version. The balanced mix of GABAergic isomers of epiandrosterone and androsterone for eliminates feelings of  "tiredness" and "lethargy" — while enhancing mental clarity and aggression.
     
  3. AndroMass: New AndroMass is up 2x stronger than the previous version. The balanced mix of GABAergic isomers of epiandrosterone and androsterone for eliminates feelings of "tiredness" and "lethargy" — while enhancing mental clarity and aggression.
     

New "Testosterone Equivalent" values:

For simplicity sake we have calculated the activity of all the AndroSeries products in "testosterone equivalents" — which represents the total combined androgenic, anabolic and estrogenic bio-activity for the 24hr period.

We chose "testosterone equivalents"  for AndroSeries products because it can be easily comprehended and compared to other forms of testosterone  — Even though testosterone is not the main mechanism by which the AndroSeries products work. Remember, there are dozens of androgens in the body which function very similar to testosterone, and these are the androgens that are responsible for the effects of the AndroSeries.  (e.g. androstenedione, androstenediol, ect)

The following values have been established per softgel –

  • AndroDrive – 217 ng/dL
  • AndroHard – 375 ng/dL
  • AndroLean – 334 ng/dL
  • AndroMass – 450 ng/dL
  • AndroBulk – 450 ng/dL

Keep in mind, this testosterone equivalent value does not tell you how androgenic, anabolic or estrogenic each product is in relation to each other. It is only a general average of "testosterone-like" effects. If you would like to see how the effects of each AndroSeries compares, please visit our AndroSeries comparison page here – AndroSeries Effects Chart

New AndroStat & AndroStacker:

To help you find out your current testosterone level, we built the AndroStat.

Once you get your testosterone levels, begin to build the perfect stack with the AndroStacker.

 

We've taken the "testosterone equivalent" values of our AndroSeries products and built them into the AndroStacker program. This allows you to build a stack of AndroSeries products and see the benefits, side-effects and "androgen zone" — so you can make sure you are taking the optimal dose for your custom goals with minimal side-effects.

 

Questions?

Talk to a product specialist in Live Chat

Call us – 1-503-841-6702
Email us – info@primordialperformance.com
Or get registered for our free forum

 

 

The Delusions & Reality of Hormone Cycling

Are you delusional or realistic about your physique goals?

If I were to ask you point blank what your body fat is what would you tell me face to face?

If I were to show you a picture of someone else's body that is very similar to yours, would you acknowledge it or be in denial?

If you and your significant other see a man walk by twice the musculature that you are and much leaner would you credit him or tell yourself that if you took the same stuff (drugs) he took, you would appear the same?

These are all questions and scenario's that I have witnessed, and reminds me that some people cannot grasp reality. 

Let's start from the beginning…

When you first begin weight training, you are usually clueless and unaware of proper nutrition,rest, training and all the key variables involved in getting results. For the fresh beginner, results will manifest regardless, simply due to the "foreign" stress that is happening to your fresh muscle tissue. Muscle growth, increase in metabolic rate and a better sense of well-being will inevitably happen…..AT FIRST. Once this grace period comes to a plateau (usually a few months) you will need to further educate yourself about proper nutrition and more sound training routines to keep the results soaring.  

Let's investigate a typical hypothetical scenario –

Although everybody gets results in the very early stages of weight training, some people respond ABNORMALLY well to lifting weights and will leave their training partners in the dust! So if both trainees started weight training at the same time, but one surpassed the other by a huge margin, it is very apparent that genetics are crucial in muscle hypertrophy and favorable body composition. The training partners will both accrue more knowledge in regards to nutrition, supplementation, and different training techniques but the genetic superior will always stay way ahead.  As time passes the thought of hormonal assistance is becoming extremely tempting to the genetic inferior.  In fact, he begins his first cycle in hopes to surpass his training partner. He begins to put some weight on (water–>via–>glycogen retention), his strength begins to increase, muscles appear fuller (more 3-dimensional looking) but he still does not look like his training partner?

I mean, he has put on 15-20 lbs. in 4 weeks, and has gotten stronger, but he still is not as impressive as his damn training partner! 

This scenario is so harsh and disheartening for most people to accept that it literally drives them insane. If they don't accept the fact that some peoples genetic makeup responds better to muscle stimuli, food, drugs and all other pertinent aspects of muscle growth- they begin to make assumptions for their short-comings. Perhaps thinking their superior partners are taking some special product behind their backs, taking huge amounts of hormones or all of the above. Let's say that the genetic superior decided to dabble in hormonal assistance, most likely due to other experienced people noticing his potential, telling him how well he'd do in Bodybuilding and what not. 

This is when the genetic elite trainee EXPLODES! His already lean and muscular physique gets even more profound with big & round muscles and low body fat. 

As you can see from this common scenario, it will be obvious right from the beginning who is predisposition to be a lean & muscular elitist among people with mediocre genetics. 

So what can you do about this painful, yet rude awakening fact of life?

Well, first off get your training and nutrition down as best as you can before even CONSIDERING hormonal assistance. How many times have you seen younger "newbies" choose a harsh methylated, designer hormone before considering a high quality protein powder, let alone even looking as if they lift weights to begin with? People want to take short-cuts and assume that hormones are the missing link to them looking like a Greek God. 

Once you stress all variables at your disposal then you may need to turn to hormones for breaking through new grounds. Once you commit to going to the "dark side" of hormonal cycling understand that you will get results, but DO NOT get irate when you don't turn into Mr.Olympia afterwards, 

It is truly sad when someone who fails to grasp reality will cycle steroids and gain a respectable amount of muscle (8-14 lbs.), gains some strength, loses some body fat, yet are pissed off that they did not achieve more? 

For the newbie hormone user or experienced user, you must still continue on with your diligent eating and training regimen that you SHOULD HAVE been doing in the first place. To truly maximize your supra-physiological hormone levels, you must feed the muscle high quality protein, essential fats, and complex carbs every day. Just because you have an athletic friend from Nigeria who can eat candy, potato chips and fast food all day and go to the gym for a half -ass workout and look better than you does NOT mean that you shouldn't do everything in your power to make the most of what you got.

Let's now make a "Pre-Cycle Checklist" for variables that MUST be addressed before committing to a hormone cycle

The Pre-Cycle Checklist – 

1.) I have stressed all avenues of nutrition and found out what suits my body best.

2.) I have stressed all facets of training and found out what suits my body best.

3.) I have been training diligently for more than 6 months while eating and training consistently.

4.) I understand that genetics play an integral role in nutrition response, training response and hormone response.

5.) I understand that you CANNOT continue gaining 10-15 lbs. each and every cycle.

6.) I understand that there is a "diminishing returns" effect when using higher dosages of hormones and side   effects become prominent.

7.) I understand that to improve upon each cycle I must increase a variable to continue gaining – increase calories or increase weight on lifts or increase dosage of hormone or all of the above.

8.) I understand that SAYING I eat 5000 calories a day is much different than LITERALLY EATING 5000 calories a day.

9.) I understand that SAYING I am 8-9% body fat is much different than LITERALLY being 8-9% body fat with ALL abs fully visible and have very thin skin all over.

10.) I understand and acknowledge all of the above.

If you can understand & oblige to this list, then you are realistic enough and mature enough to engage into hormonal assistance. You must segregate yourself from false perceptions and accept reality. Please do not become discouraged from the information given and use it to your benefit and seek out your underlying potential, just be a realist about it.

I personally have witnessed several competitive Bodybuilders' with average genetics annihilate genetically gifted or "elite" athletes due to impeccable work ethic, adherence to perfect nutrition, and giving everything they had to achieve the end result they sought after. I have noticed a lot of the time, the genetic elite athletes understand that they can do the bare minimum and look better than 95% of everyone else. This awareness makes them LAZY. Can you imagine if that genetically gifted person had the drive, will power, and persistence as the average athlete that is a work horse? It would be a sight to behold. 

I hope everything discussed in this article will "sink in" and let each and every one of you acknowledge the importance of all variables involved in this muscle-building equation. Leave no stone un-turned, and give it everything you got, because for most humans……..building high-quality muscle isn't easy.

Avoid Milk and Sugar for a Clear Complexion

Acne sucks and no one likes it….

Why is it so prevalent in our present times and how can we rectify this current epidemic? 

Well, an interesting, yet alarming tidbit is that currently 85% of our adolescents are experiencing acne as well as men and women in their twenties. It is common knowledge to assume the main culprit of this problematic condition is hormone related, and pubescent teens are pulsing the greatest hormone production of their lives during these times. Fluctuating hormone levels do elicit side effects such as acne, BUT there might be some environmental factors that are magnifying these effects.

Let's face it, our current nutritional guidelines that are being recommended is insanity. High carbohydrates, low fat and low protein based nutrition. Also, how many teenagers do you know that adhere to meticulous nutritional regimens and properly stay hydrated and avoid excessive empty calories and other "anti-nutritious" foods?

I would guess your answer is "not many." 

Recent research has demonstrated that the consumption of milk and dairy-based products are major players in contributing to the acne epidemic we currently face. Milk is loaded with hormones and growth factor's such as; bGH (bovine growth-hormone) IGF-1 and also trigger's insulin release. Elevated plasma IGF-1 levels from milk further exacerbate endogenous production of hormones that are already high during puberty. The presence of 5a-pregnanedione, 5a-androstanedione and other precursors of 5a-dihydrotestosterone add to the potency of milk to increase the formation of acne. 

Most cheaper milk products currently available derive milk from prenatal cows, which are jacked full of hormones from the pregnancy. DHT is then transferred into the milk product and then consumed by adolescents and young adults in conjunction with their sugary morning cereal!

(High consumption of milk & high glycemic carbs like French fries can trigger acne)

 Let's consider the role DHT plays on the production of sebum. As DHT gets elevated from milk consumption, new sebocytes are produced which ignite more sebum production, which trigger more acne. This vicious cycle is even further magnified by a diet rich in sugar and high-glycemic carbohydrates. Sugary foods with high glycemic loads will induce abrupt pulses of insulin production by the pancreas. The bolus amount of insulin will also spike IGF-1 levels, which are already high in teens and young adults to begin with. 

IGF-1 is a mitogen and after IGF-1 attaches to its receptor sites in various tissues, it induces cell division, cell proliferation, and prevents cell apoptosis (which is the death of cells) Keratinocytes (epidermis cells), sebocytes (epithelial cells) as well as the adrenals and gonads, which get stimulated by IGF-1 production.

Here is something to think about – 

Notice how you will occasionally see what appears to be a young women, meaning fully developed and looks "of age,' then your jaw drops when you realize that this young female is 12 or 13 years old…..

There is sound reasoning for this mind-boggling occurrence. It would be unethical and twisted to inject 8-9 year old females with several hormones such as; estrogen, progesterone, prolactin, testosterone, IGF-1, rHGH and various other growth factors right? Well drinking milk in high amounts is doing just that – saturating their endocrine system with a multitude of growth spurting, powerful hormones. There is research indicating that average height's and body weights of young females have increased dramatically in the last 50 years. I suppose drinking a substance that contains over 59 bio-active hormones can have such an affect.

Back to the subject at hand pertaining to dairy & sugar promoting a greater incidence of acne.

What can be done?

Well, for starters stay away from milk or dramatically decrease its consumption. I would suggest exchanging milk for Almond Milk or Coconut Milk. These 2 substitutes are low in calories and do not contain unpredictable hormonal fluctuations and contain MCT fatty acids (coconut milk) & Monounsaturated fatty acids (almond milk). Trust me – YOU CAN STILL ENJOY CEREAL! Of course to keep insulin under control and igf-1 levels stable, the cereal selection should be scored low on the glycemic index and be enriched with dietary fiber

Some useful herbal based supplements to take for insulin control would be gymnema sylvestre, banaba leaf, bitter melon and cinnamon. For pharmaceuticals Metformin also known as Glucophage would lower IGF-1 levels and keep insulin and blood sugar at low baseline levels.

If persistent acne stays with you well into adulthood, you need to take charge immediately and get your IGF-1 levels down. As adulthood acne may be considered a health risk factor for increased risk of cancer, which will require dietary modifications and proper natural or pharmaceutical treatment of insulin-sensitizing agents.

As always, I write these articles to give you (the reader) something to think about and consider. Do I personally stay away from all dairy products? I would be a liar if I said yes. I eat cottage cheese, low-fat mozzarella cheese, Greek yogurt (occasionally), and as a competitive Bodybuilder, various forms of dairy protein in powder form is consumed at key times of the day. I do however; avoid milk consumption and use almond & coconut milk instead. 

If you suffer with mild to severe acne, try eliminating the consumption of dairy products and also monitor your carbohydrate intake, namely simple sugars. I personally adhere to high fluid intake to constantly stay hydrated and to flush toxins out of the body. I find when I drink 2 gallons of water per day, my complexion improves dramatically.

 

References:

1.)Danby FW.Nutrition and acne.Clin Dermatol. 2010 Nov-Dec;28(6):598-604.

2.)Melnik BC, Schmitz G.Role of insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, hyperglycaemic food and milk consumption in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris.Exp Dermatol. 2009 Oct;18(10):833-41. Epub 2009 Aug 25.

3.)Melnik BC.Evidence for acne-promoting effects of milk and other insulinotropic dairy products.Nestle Nutr Workshop Ser Pediatr Program. 2011;67:131-45. Epub 2011 Feb 16.

4.)Melnik B.[Acne vulgaris. Role of diet].Hautarzt. 2010 Feb;61(2):115-25. 

5.)Melnik B.Milk consumption: aggravating factor of acne and promoter of chronic diseases of Western societies.J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2009 Apr;7(4):364-70. Epub 2008 Feb 20.

Inflammation for Muscle Growth

If you have been weight lifting for a year or more and read magazines and the internet for information, you probably have come across the topic of Inflammation. You have certain people in the industry promoting anti-inflammation for fat loss and muscle growth and other industry experts advocating inflammation for protein synthesis and fat loss as well. When I mention inflammation I am referring to inflammation derived from nutrients in food such as fatty acids. High dose fish oil has been touted as a major player in regulating inflammation from a nutritional stand point, and arachidonic acid has been hyped up as a pro inflammatory muscle builder by supplement companies. How can two polar opposite fatty acids elicit the same results for building muscle and decreasing body fat? The simple answer is: they don't. I have experimented first hand with high dose fish oil and olive oil and also high doses of arachidonic acid from red meat, egg yolks and various cheeses. I will share with you the effects that I got from both ends of the fatty acid spectrum when dieting for extreme fat loss.

Pro-Inflammatory                                               Anti-Inflammatory


After reading several articles from a popular trainer and author on a famous website that is revolved around testosterone and selling their own products, I took notice of his advice regarding extremely high dose fish oil. He was not just recommending 4-6 softgels a day, but up to 40 softgels a day of your standard 1000 mg product! After devising a plan of action about what products I was going to use and how I was going to orchestrate my diet, I would give this method a go. I planned on utilizing a low carbohydrate diet with carbohydrates only coming from green vegetables which bare minimal impact on blood sugar. I also chose liquid fish oil and olive oil for my only fat sources. The two oils were dosed at 4 tablespoons a day. Saturated fat from egg yolks and red meat were not present as I really wanted my omega 3 and omega 9 levels sky high.

 

4 tbs of carlson's fish oil
=
19,200 mgs EPA = 6,000 mgs DHA

 

4 tbs of olive oil
= 44 grams of monounsaturated fat

 

I was ready to dive right in and become joint pain free and absolutely shredded from oxidizing fat from increased uncoupling proteins. I was already in very respectable condition prior to starting this cutting phase. I had my abs displaying with a pretty thin skin fold measurement and of course arms were lean and vascular, I would say I was 9-11% maximum in body fat. My mass gaining diet prior to starting was still low carbs, but high in red meat from burgers, bacon, cheese, and peanut butter.

So the experiment began…

I was adamant about not ingesting nuts or nut butters as I really felt I would achieve optimal results from suffering with just oils and keeping trace carbs to a minimum. After the first week I began to notice some cosmetic changes. I felt like my muscle bellies were flat and deflating slightly, I also noticed my pronounced vascularity was less prevalent. My joints felt nice, but I really felt softer and smaller. I just assumed this was an awkward period from transitioning into a dieting phase from a mass gaining phase, and after 3-4 weeks, things will swing my way.

Week 3 arrived and a moment of reality hit me like a ton of bricks when a friend came into my work to talk to me. The very first thing he said when he saw me was "What happened to you? You look like crap?" "You looked bigger and leaner before you started your diet, what the hell is going on?" I immediately took offense and asked him what his problem was and he doesn't know what he's talking about, but after 5 minutes I knew he was absolutely right. I explained to him that I was experimenting with high dosages of essential fatty acids, namely omega-3 and omega-9 and that it is supposed to do all of these awesome things for fat-loss amongst other benefits. He quickly told me to ditch this protocol and do what I have always done because this obviously wasn't meshing well with my body type. Like I mentioned earlier, I already felt the signs of this diet going south from the first week and knew I had to switch gears and get myself back on track.


"What happened to you? You look like crap?"

I know that I am ectomorphic in nature and have always had a blazing metabolism. This made it very difficult building muscle and gaining weight. I knew from my past offseason that I respond extremely well to saturated fats. My new diet now consisted of lean red meat, whole eggs, whey isolate shakes with added egg yolks, light mozzarella cheese, and natural peanut butter. I would perform a carbohydrate refeed twice a week, on Thursday and Sunday for a 4 hour period.

Previous diet menu:           New diet menu:

-Olive oil                                             -Steak

-Fish oil                                              -Whole eggs (added yolks)

-Chicken breast                               -Cheese

-Whey isolate                                   -Peanut butter

After 1 week of switching from high dosages of fish oil and olive oil to an arachidonic acid rich diet, the changes to my physique were dramatic. My muscles began to swell and fill out, my vein protrusion was magnified, and my physique tightened up considerably. As the weeks flew by I got into better condition while maintaining muscular fullness even without the presence of carbohydrates. This solidified my thoughts regarding saturated fats being beneficial for ectomorphic hard gainers, and high fish oil being favorable for the huskier, endomorph body types.

 

Naturally lean ectomorphs
= High arachidonic based diet

 

Naturally husky endomorphs
= High fish oil based diet

 

From current literature it is widely accepted that ectomorphs have sufficient insulin sensitivity and higher metabolic rates. Endomorphs typically display insulin resistance issues and do very poorly with processing glucose, and also struggle with dropping body fat. Studies have demonstrated that saturated fat can increase insulin resistance by suppressing GLUT-4 production which reduces glucose transport significantly. However, for the ectomorph body type this shouldn't pose any threat. Saturated fatty acids have also been shown to increase testosterone production and increase prostaglandin formation from a class of substances called eicosanoids. Saturated fat found in red meat, animal organs, and egg yolks contain high amounts of arachidonic acid, which ultimately gets converted into the prostaglandin PGF2a. Once converted to PGF2a, it can begin doing it's magic.

Pgf2a has been shown to inhibit adipogenesis through mitigating the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase. Arachidonic acid is also speculated to increase protein synthesis by the muscle being stretched from training and releasing prostaglandins PGF2a and PGE2. PGE2 is paramount in its role to induce satellite cell proliferation and fusion. This chain of events will increase the amount of nuclei in the cell which correlates to rapid muscle growth from mRNA production. These are just some of the attributes associated with consuming high amounts of inflammatory inducing fatty acids.

As you can clearly see from my personal experience and the facts listed, that for the hard gainer, following a pro inflammatory based diet is optimal for muscle growth and lean mass retention. For the individuals who have naturally higher body fat levels and struggle to shed fat, I would say having higher dosages of omega-3 is advisable. Not excessive amounts like the article I read from that website, but at least 8-12 softgels a day. I personally believe all body types should keep carbohydrate intake low to moderate, but especially endomorphs need to be very meticulous with their carbohydrate consumption if they value a favorable body composition.

Schematic summary of the biosynthetic pathway for eicosanoids derived from arachidonic acid.


Please understand that I experimented with such a diet while keeping my insulin levels extremely low, due to being on a ketogenic type of diet. If consuming copious amounts of carbohydrates I would definitely not implement excessive amounts of saturated fats due to health implications that could arise. In retrospect, I realized that this type of nutrition plan worked great for me, but I now firmly believe in nutritional balance. I advise people to consume both types of fats in equal ratios combined with low carbohydrate allotment.

References:

1.)Juan J. Moreno*, T. Carbonell, T. Sánchez*, S. Miret and Maria T. MitjavilaOlive Oil Decreases both Oxidative Stress and the Production of Arachidonic Acid Metabolites by the Prostaglandin G/H Synthase Pathway in Rat Macrophages 3J. Nutr. August 1, 2001vol. 131 no. 8 2145-2149.

2.)Courtney E. Leik PhD, Scott W. Walsh, PhD. Linoleic Acid, but not Oleic Acid, Upregulates Production of Interleukin-8 by Human Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells via Arachidonic Acid Metabolites Under Conditions of Oxidative Stress.doi: 10.1016/j.jsgi.2005.09.004Reproductive Sciences December 2005 vol. 12 no. 8 593-598

3.)Andersson, A., A. Sjodin, A. Hedman, RM. Olsson, and B. Vessby. Fatty acid profile of skeletal muscle phospholipids in trained and untrained young men. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 279:E744-751, 2000.d profile

4.)Shephard, R. J. and P.N. Shek. Immune responses to inflammation and trauma: a physical training model. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 76: 469-472, 1998.

5.)Rajaram S, Connell KMSabaté J. Effect of almond-enriched high-monounsaturated fat diet on selected markers of inflammation: a randomised, controlled, crossover study. Br J Nutr. 2010 Mar;103(6):907-12. Epub 2009 Oct 29.

6.)Teruo Kawada,* Shun Kayahashi, Yoshifumi Hida,Ken-ji Koga, Yoshitaka Nadachi, and Tohru Fushik, Fish (Bonito) Oil Supplementation Enhances the Expression of Uncoupling Protein in Brown Adipose Tissue of Rat. J. Agric. Food Chem., 1998, 46 (4), pp 1225–1227

7.)DJ Maron, JM Fair and WL Haskell, Saturated fat intake and insulin resistance in men with coronary artery disease. The Stanford Coronary Risk Intervention Project Investigators and Staff. Circulation, Vol 84, 2020-2027, Copyright © 1991 by American Heart Association.

8.)Dorgan JFJudd JTLongcope CBrown CSchatzkin AClevidence BACampbell WSNair PPFranz CKahle LTaylor PR, Effects of dietary fat and fiber on plasma and urine androgens and estrogens in men: a controlled feeding study. Am J Clin Nutr. 1996 Dec;64(6):850-5.

9.)Zalin RJ The role of hormones and prostanoids in the in vitro proliferation and differentiation of human myoblasts. Exp Cell Res. 1987 Oct;172(2):265-81.

10.)Palmer RM. Prostaglandins and the control of muscle protein synthesis and degradation. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent FattyAcids. 1990 Feb; 39(2):95-104

The Power of Nicotine for Getting Lean

When you think of people who are addicted to smoking cigarettes, what type of person do you envision? I personally think of someone thin, drawn, and hyper-active.

When you hear about people trying to quit their smoking habits you typically hear about weight gain and increased hunger. This has to account for something right? I am sure most of you are thinking “smoking obviously suppresses appetite and that is why people stay leaner.” While that may be true – there is more to this fat shedding drug in regard to directly influencing lipolysis.  

You see, nicotine actually plays a vital role as a stimulant in the sympathetic nervous system. Nicotine increases catecholamine release (Epinephrine, Norepinephrine & Dopamine) in the adrenal glands. Remember in health class the “Fight or Flight” hormone? That is exactly what catecholamines are.

Speaking of catecholamines, dopamine is a great appetite suppressant as it aids in satiety due to increased dopaminergic activity in the brain. Also, when adrenaline is increased from elevated Epinephrine and Norepinephrine your basal metabolic rate increases as well as fatty acid oxidation via UCP-1 (uncoupling proteins) which then get activated in Brown Adipose Tissue (BAT) and also White Adipose Tissue (WAT).

Brown Adipose Tissue (BAT) is highly thermogenic and can be broken down readily opposed to White Adipose Tissue (WAT). Brown Adipose Tissue (BAT) is loaded with an abundance of blood-filled capillaries and variable size of lipid droplets.  The reasoning for BAT’s thermogenic properties are due to the expression of mitochondrial uncoupling proteins (UCP1) which initiates the cells mitochondria to uncouple fatty acids into the blood stream for use as an energy substrate opposed to ATP/Glucose. 

What about White Adipose Tissue (WAT)? This ugly adipose tissue is located directly beneath your skin and is called subcutaneous fat. WAT supplies cushion, support, and insulation as a defense mechanism for human survival. Too much of it can get ugly and not to mention – UNHEALTHY.

          Nicotine incinerates BOTH types of fat 

Scientists in Japan performed a study on mice that demonstrated fat-loss from nicotine usage in Brown Adipose Tissue (BAT) but also White Adipose Tissue (WAT). They treated obese mice with nicotine for 6 months and obese mice with a placebo saline solution for the same duration.  The mice receiving the nicotine consumed less food than those injected with saline, however, the mRNA and protein of UCP1 was detected in not only BAT but White Adipose Tissue as well. This indicates that nicotine can help mitigate the effects of obesity from various mechanisms.

Even more exciting, is the fact that when you add caffeine into the equation (100 mgs) + 1 mg of nicotine you can increase the thermogenic effect by 100%! Increasing the nicotine dose to 2 mgs did NOT increase the thermogenic effect more than 1 mg. It just increased unwanted side effects.  Caffeine stacked with nicotine speeds the rate of energy substrate usage in fatty acids and glucose metabolism. This is thought to have a “nutrient partitioning” effect and therefore help facilitate the storage of nutrients into muscle cells opposed to fat cells.

The "not so optimistic" part of the article  

As you know by now, nicotine is a stimulant and like most stimulants, an increase in blood pressure is accompanied with nicotine usage as well as vaso-constriction upon endothelial cells. This is caused by the catecholamine release which initiates epinephrine stimulation. This is not a desirable effect and should raise concern if thinking about incorporating nicotine into your weight loss regimen. Keep in mind that cigarettes have toxic tar in them and the smoke is polluted with carbon monoxide, which works in concert with nicotine to further narrow blood vessels for impaired  blood flow to the heart. Lung cancer is induced from excessive exposure to the cigarette smoke which is a carcinogen. Nicotine itself, is not cancerous however.       

         Benefits of Nicotine   

  • Increased focus and memory from presynaptic nerve terminals of dopamine, acetylcholine & glutamine secreting neurons.
  • Increased lipolysis from catecholamine release.
  • Anti-Depressant effects from dopamine stimulation.
  • Nutrient Partitioning Effect from increased blood flow to skeletal muscle.
  • Decreased Hunger.

          Negative Side Effects of Nicotine 

  • Addictive 
  • Raises Blood Pressure
  • Constricts Blood Vessels
  • Adrenal fatigue

So how would you put this information to use?

The cleanest way to get the benefits of nicotine without ingesting, inhaling or snorting tobacco would be to acquire nicotine chewing gum or a nicotine dermal patch. Remember that you only need 1 mg of nicotine combined with 100 mg of caffeine for enhanced fat loss. So, 1 mg of nicotine + 100 mg of caffeine 3 times per day spaced 4 hours apart would be most effective. The nicotine based gum comes typically in 2 mg and 4 mg dosages. So you can tear them in halfs or quarters to meet the 1 mg needed. The patch is tricky and I would not recommend it as it takes around 3 hours to finally "kick in" and will continuously supply your blood stream with nicotine whether you like it or not…

The patches come in extra strength,  (21 mg) medium strength,  (14 mg) and lower strength at (7 mg) — Which is the dosage you would need (7 mg). 

If you do try such an experiment in your quest for ultimate leanness – PLEASE take precautionary measures. The herb hawthorn berry in liquid extract form dosed at 900-1200 mg alleviates elevated blood pressure, dilates blood vessels, and assists in proper blood flow to the heart. A quality omega-3 fish oil supplement will also help aid in healthy blood pressure management and help regulate optimal blood flow to the heart. 

 

References:

1.) Andersson K, Arner P.Systemic nicotine stimulates human adipose tissue lipolysis through local cholinergic and catecholaminergic receptors. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2001 Aug;25(8):1225-32.

2.) Keiko Arai,Kyongsong Kim, Katsumi Kaneko, Mitsue Iketani, Asuka Otagiri, Naoko Yamauchi, and Tamotsu Shibasaki.Nicotine infusion alters leptin and uncoupling protein 1 mRNA expression in adipose tissues of rats.Submitted 6 September 2000. accepted in final form 7 February 2001.

3.) Asuka Mano-Otagiri, Azusa Iwasaki-Sekino, Hisayuki Ohata, Keiko Arai, Tamotsu Shibasaki.Nicotine suppresses energy storage through activation of sympathetic outflow to brown adipose tissue via corticotropin-releasing factor type 1 receptor. Neuroscience Letters (2009) Volume: 455, Issue: 1, Pages: 26-29

4.) Jessen AB, Toubro S, Astrup A.Effect of chewing gum containing nicotine and caffeine on energy expenditure and substrate utilization in men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Jun;77(6):1442-7.

5.) T Yoshida, N Sakane, T Umekawa, A Kogure, M Kondo, K Kumamoto, T Kawada, I Nagase, M Saito.  Nicotine induces uncoupling protein 1 in white adipose tissue of obese mice. 06/1999; 23(6):570-5.
 
6.) William T. ChanceCorresponding Author Contact Information, a, Teri Foley-Nelsona, Jeffrey L. Nelsona and Josef E. Fischera. Neurotransmitter alterations associated with feeding and satiety. Volume 416, Issue 2, 28 July 1987, Pages 228-234 
 

Post Contest Rebound

How to use this anabolic phenomenon to work with you and not against you

 So you decided to commit to entering your first Bodybuilding competition. You planned out your 16 week diet protocol, which will get you as lean as you have ever been. You structured your training program methodically, which coincides with your nutrition and cardio outline perfectly. As the contest date approaches closer and closer, and hunger gets more intense, you begin fantasizing about pizza, milk shakes, cheese burgers and junk food you never initially craved for.  You can’t wait to reward yourself with all of the forbidden junk food you yearn for and also give yourself a much needed break from training and cardio. I mean, hey, you deserve it right? You just beat yourself down for 4 months and should be able to reward yourself for the hard work you put in. Not so fast champ, I will explain the more logical and proactive approach to coming off a pre-contest training and diet regimen.

After months of strict, rigorous dieting to achieve extremely low body fat levels for a bodybuilding contest, you are essentially priming yourself for what could be a muscle building dream, or a fat hoarding nightmare.  As body fat levels dip into the lower single digits, the hormone leptin, is significantly lowered thus triggering intense hunger followed by an increase in ghrelin production.  When attaining truly shredded conditioning, the constant hunger is unavoidable.

 Typically a competitor will begin plotting their "post contest binge" a few weeks before the contest, making a list of all empty calorie, fat storing foods, which are also non-conducive to muscle growth.  Instead, the smart competitor should be planning out their off season protocol a few weeks before the show and plan on making the most of their post contest rebound.  Having a good quality protein powder on hand like Primordial Performance’s Maximum Absorbed Protein can help with those cravings.

After the contest is over, your body is primed to store all nutrients you ingest. Since body fat is extremely low, your insulin sensitivity is very high.  This means less insulin is needed from your pancreas to shuttle nutrients to their destination. Greater insulin sensitivity translates into nutrients being absorbed towards muscle cells and not adipose tissue.  Since leptin is low and ghrelin is high, your appetite for muscle building foods will be ravenous. The foods you should be focusing on are typically what you would have consumed during your pre-contest phase, but in copious amounts. 

The foods that should be focused on are lean protein sources such as chicken breast, white fish, fatty fish, lean cuts of red meat. Fibrous complex carbohydrates such as: whole oats, long grain rice, yams, red potatoes, whole wheat pasta, and hot oat bran cereal.  Add in essential fats such as avocados, raw almonds, macadamia nuts and olive oil.  All of these foods are very beneficial to a depleted and nutrient deprived competitor.  Consuming these food choices in the proper caloric range will yield a super compensation effect of glycogen storage. The influx of calories also will elevate thyroid output, which increases your resting metabolic rate, and  will increase  testosterone production from essential fatty acids and additional saturated fats. This cascade of hormonal responses combined with heavy resistance training plus some added cardio will be your biggest growth spurt of the year if executed properly.  If you fall victim to the post contest binge festival the exact opposite will take place. This option usually entails the competitor eating excessive amounts of refined sugars, processed meats and carbohydrates plus large amounts of hydrogenated trans fatty acid rich junk food.

The enormous post contest ingestion of empty calorie foods is usually accompanied with down time from cardio and weight training which equates to muscle atrophy and fat cell hypertrophy. Not to mention high water retention, muscular cramps and mild depression once the feeding frenzy comes to a halt.  Try taking Primordial Performance’s Slumber Stack sleep formula before bed for a better sleep and improved muscular recovery.

I must admit, I fell victim to the post contest binge and learned my lesson the hard way. If you are a first time competitor or fell victim to a faulty rebound in the past, hopefully this article will motivate you to make the most of this short lived muscle building window. 

Leptin [lep•tin  lep-tin]

a hormone that is thought to suppress appetite and speed up metabolism.

Ghrelin [ghrel•in  grel-ən]

a gastrointestinal hormone produced by epithelial cells lining the fundus of the stomach; appears to be a stimulant for appetite and feeding, but is also a strong stimulant of growth hormone secretion from the anterior pituitary

-By Matt Porter

Don’t Get Ripped off by Carbs and Get Ripped with Saturated fat

Which food item builds more muscle? (shown below)

 

 

I am sure most of you are familiar with the common belief that saturated fatty acids are the culprit of obesity and cardiovascular ailments. I am also sure most of you are familiar with the low carbohydrate craze that flooded the media about 10 years ago due to The Atkins Diet. Dr. Atkins ideas were definitely outside of the box, and while not perfect, they were on the right track. The recommended diet for optimal health, according to the original USDA food pyramid from 1992 is a very low-fat, low protein and high carbohydrate based diet. As we know, if this diet was truly nutritionally sound then we wouldn't be facing such a high obesity epidemic at present. It is pretty clear that the nutritional food pyramid is grossly outdated and the public needs to be properly educated on proper nutrition. In actuality, high carbohydrate consumption is truly the explanation for the growing number of people diagnosed with diabetes, high triglycerides, elevated blood pressure and obesity. People need to understand that carbohydrates are not nutritionally essential for survival. Amino acids and fatty acids are mandatory for proper manufacturing of new tissue repair, immune function, hair, skin, nails, cellular integrity, brain, and heart health.

 

Back in the day people survived off of protein and fats

 

For the typical desk job citizen who performs minimal daily activity, getting rid of carbohydrates in place of red meat, eggs and cheese would be in their best interest. As for extreme athletes, like Marathon runners, Football players, Swimmers, and Cyclists involved in high levels of activity, strategic carbohydrate consumption would be extremely advantageous for supplying adequate energy reserves for optimal performance. For the weight lifters, bodybuilders and fitness enthusiast's that want muscular growth and low body fat levels, trading carbohydrates for saturated fats will be extremely conducive to the goal of attaining the ideal physique. Training with weights is not extremely energy demanding and typically only lasts around an hour. Most people train in the low to medium rep range consisting of 6-12 repetitions. This will not require extreme amounts of glucose to effectively and efficiently perform. In fact, once you metabolically shift into relying on protein and fats as your primary energy substrates, you will be able to surprise yourself in the gym and become stronger without carbohydrates. When you are consuming high protein and fats and non-starchy vegetables, you will still be able to accumulate glycogen from trace carbs from protein turnover (gluconeogenesis) and vegetables. By the end of the day, your carb count could add up to 30-70 grams depending on your total

"When you are consuming high protein and fats and non-starchy vegetables, you will still be able to accumulate glycogen from trace carbs from protein turnover (gluconeogenesis) and vegetables."

 

caloric intake and food choices. This is why I recommend people following a low carbohydrate diet to perform cardio in the morning to burn the most body fat, however, since glucose will always be low, you could benefit from cardio at any time of the day. I also advise people to weight train in the evening as you will have built up sufficient glycogen from incidental carbohydrates eaten throughout the day. Keep in mind that you can also derive energy from your creatine phosphate stores and ATP reserves. These powerhouse energy sources come into play on your first few reps during exercise. Once these fuel substrates are depleted, then glycogen will come into play. Creatine phosphate levels will be completely restored after 4 minutes of rest.

_ATP_P = ADP and Energy

_ADP + P = ATP

_Creatine = Supply of P

 

(Creatine Phosphate above)

(Fatty acid oxidation above)

 

The coolest attribute to this way of dieting is that you will be a fat burning machine. You will constantly be mobilizing free fatty acids from the mitochondria and from intra-muscular triglycerides. Making the core of your nutrition plan comprised of lean red meat, whole eggs, cheese, and green vegetables will give you the option of selecting two different scenarios depending on your total caloric intake and energy expenditure. The first scenario is a muscle gaining phase. You will need to be in a high caloric surplus to accrue tissue. You will most likely stay leaner while in that surplus due to your favorable hormonal environment. Your serum insulin levels will be regulated and testosterone output will be optimized. The second scenario is entering a cutting or fat-loss phase. This will require a slight to moderate caloric deficit with less cardio then you would need with higher carbohydrate consumption.

Sample muscle gaining phase caloric equation:        Sample fat loss phase caloric equation:

(Bodyweight x 20 = total calories)                                  (Bodyweight x 13 = total calories)

 

Given the two scenarios, it is clear to understand that you will yield the best results with a protein and saturated fat based diet. You will stay leaner when gaining size and retain more tissue when reaching very low body fat levels, since ketones have been shown to exhibit a muscle sparing effect. An interesting study investigated the ideology that "A calorie is a calorie" is not accurate and The Laws of Thermodynamics do not apply regarding high fat, low carbohydrate diets. The study involved subjects who followed a low carb, higher fat diet and subjects who followed a low fat, high carbohydrate diet. The low carb group ingested a higher caloric value than subjects on a low-fat diet and lost more weight, in addition to burning more calories throughout the day. The low-carb group ate 54 extra calories a day and lost 5.8 kg while the low-fat group lost only 1.9 kg.

Another researcher discovered that people eating 300 extra calories a day on a low-carb diet lost a similar amount of weight. Another study I will mention is one regarding a 6-week very low carbohydrate diet and its effects on total and regional body composition. Results revealed some amazing details. Fat mass was decreased (-3.4 kg) while lean body mass substantially increased (+1.1 kg) at the end of the 6 week trial. Researchers believed that the fat loss can be attributed to decreased serum insulin levels and increased fatty acid oxidation due to elevated beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations. This proves that a calorie is not always a calorie and different macronutrients influence specific metabolic actions in the body once consumed.

References:    

1.)Kennedy ARPissios POtu HRoberson RXue BAsakura KFurukawa NMarino FELiu FFKahn BBLibermann TAMaratos-Flier E, A high-fat, ketogenic diet induces a unique metabolic state in mice.Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Jun;292(6):E1724-39. Epub 2007 Feb 13.

 

2.)Pérez-Guisado J, Ketogenic diets and weight loss: basis and effectiveness. Arch Latinoam Nutr. 2008 Jun;58(2):126-31

3.)Yancy WS JrOlsen MKGuyton JRBakst RPWestman EC, A low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet versus a low-fat diet to treat obesity and hyperlipidemia: a randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med. 2004 May 18;140(10):769-77.

4.)Feinman RD, Fein EJ. "A calorie is a calorie" violates the second law of thermodynamicsNutr J. 2004;3:9. doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-3-9

5.)Volek JS, Sharman MJ, Cómez AL, et al. Comparison of energy-restricted very-low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets on weight loss and body composition in overweight men and women. Nutr Metab (Lond) 2004

6.)Mayo Clinic (2003, November 12). High Saturated Fat, Starch Avoidance Weight Loss Diet Offers Good Preliminary Results.
ScienceDaily (Nov. 12, 2003).

7.)Denise Gellene | Times Staff Writer, Low-fat diet not tops for weight loss. Subjects on the Atkins and Mediterranean regimens lost more in an Atkins Foundation- aided study. July 17, 2008.

8.)Essen-Gustavsson, B. & Tesch, P. A. 1990. Glycogen and triglyceride
utilization in relation to muscle metabolic characteristics in men performing heavy-resistance exercise
. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 61, 5-10.

9.)Anssi H Manninen, Very-low-carbohydrate diets and preservation of muscle mass. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2006; 3: 9. Published online 2006 January 31. doi: 10.1186/1743-7075-3-9.

10.)Vazquez JA, Adibi SA. Protein sparing during treatment of obesity: ketogenic versus non-ketogenic very low calorie diet. Metabolism. 1992;41:401–14

11.)Manninen AH.
Is a calorie really a calorie? Metabolic advantage of low-carbohydrate diets. J Int Soc
Sports Nutr. 2004;1:21–26

What is the difference between DHEA 1-DHEA 4-DHEA R-DHEA and 7-DHEA?


DHEA
(dehydroepiandrosterone)
(Super-5-DHEA†)
 
Main effects
 
+ Anti-aging (youthful energy)
+ Exercise endurance
+ Recovery
+ Fat loss
+ Muscle sparing (anti-catabolic)
+ Immune system
 
 
Primary metabolite –
 
5-androstenediol (5-AD)
 
Description –
 
DHEA is considered "generic" or regular DHEA. It can technically be called 5-DHEA, since the double bond is located in the 5th position. 
 
DHEA has been popular in the life extension crowd since the 1980’s. It's typically used for its ability to support energy and general wellbeing at a dose of 50-100mg/day. (1-3) More recently, higher doses of DHEA have been used to improve body composition due to DHEA’s mild anabolic and thermogenic effects. (1, 4) This makes DHEA an excellent choice for cutting during a calorie deficient diet, since DHEA has good muscle sparing properties. (1, 17)
 
DHEA converts to testosterone at a rate of about 1%, however it has high conversion to 5-androstenediol, where it gets its mild androgenic and anabolic effects. (5-8) DHEA’s thermogenic properties come from its conversion to 7-oxo-DHEA. (4)
 
Due to DHEA’s mild androgenic effects it rarely produces hair loss or acne. Although DHEA has moderate estrogenic effects, it rarely produces gyno or undesirable estrogenic side effects.(1-3) Some more sedentary users have reported anxiety or sleeplessness with DHEA, which is likely related to the neurosteroid activity in the brain. (3) However, this effect is also reported as “motivational energy” which is a frequently reported benefit of DHEA. 
 
Because of DHEA’s wide range of benefits and its balanced hormonal properties it can easily be used for cutting, or to keep gains lean during a lean mass building cycle.
 

4-DHEA
(4-dehydroepiandrosterone)
(Super-4-DHEA†)
 
Main effects –
 
+ Muscle mass (nitrogen retention)
+ Strength
+ Blood volume (hematopoietic)
+ Recovery
+ IGF-1 & GH
 
 
Primary metabolite –
 
4-androstenediol (4-AD)
 
Description –
 
4-DHEA is a naturally occurring DHEA isomer. It’s structure closely resembles regular DHEA but the double bond in the 4th position dramatically changes its effects.
 
4-DHEA readily converts to 4-androstenediol, rather than 5-androstenediol, boosting its anabolic potency more than 2x over regular DHEA. (6-8, 11) 4-DHEA is also expected to have a higher conversion rate to testosterone compared to regular DHEA. (6, 7) The 4-DHEA also lacks the calorie burning thermogenic properties, therefore offering superior calorie retention for a bulking effect. (4) This increased anabolic potency and reduced thermogenic action will lead to noticeable gains in strength, lean tissue growth, and weight gain. 
 
4-DHEA will have mild estrogen conversion that can be easily balanced with a non-aromatizing steroid like androsterone or 1-DHEA. Overall gains will be similar to the original “4-AD” banned in the 2004 Steroid Control Act.
 
As with the other DHEA isomers, 4-DHEA is naturally occurring and non-toxic. (9) Side-effects such as oily skin or reduced fertility are considered mild and temporary. The most notable side-effect would be suppression of natural testosterone production, which makes PCT necessary after a cycle. Overall 4-DHEA is a very safe and effective lean muscle building agent.
 
The only downfall to 4-DHEA is its high cost due to the high dose that is required to see significant muscle building effects.
†:The “Super” (ex., "Super-5-DHEA") signifies a fatty ester attachment to the steroid molecule to assist in bioavailability.

1-DHEA
(1-dehydroepiandrosterone)
(Super-1-DHEA†)
 
Main effects –
 
+ Muscle mass (nitrogen retention)
+ Strength
+ Hardening
+ Bloat reduction
+ Recovery
 
 
Primary metabolite –
 
1-androstenediol (1-AD)
 
Description –
 
1-DHEA is a naturally occurring DHEA isomer which cannot convert to testosterone or estrogen — but instead converts to the non-estrogenic 1-testosterone. (10)
 
The total conversion to 1-testosterone is probably less than 2%. (6,7) However, 1-DHEA gets most of its effects from conversion to 1-androstenediol, which has potent muscle building and hardening effects in and of itself. (8, 11, 12) 1-androstenediol was sold as “1-AD” prior to the 2004 Steroid Control Act, and was known for producing rapid gains in lean mass with zero water retention or bloat.
 
1-DHEA does not convert to estrogen nor does it activate the estrogen receptor like DHEA is known to do. (13) It could be referred to as “dry DHEA”. Because of this, it will stack well with other estrogenic steroids such as 4-DHEA to produce† clean gains in muscle tissue.
 
As with the other DHEA isomers, 1-DHEA is naturally occurring and non-toxic. (14) Side-effects such as oily skin, reduced fertility or increased hair shedding are considered mild and temporary. The most notable side-effect would be suppression of natural testosterone production, which makes PCT necessary after a cycle. This makes 1-DHEA a very safe, legal and effective lean muscle building agent. Some users have reported lethargy with 1-DHEA. This seems to be less severe when balanced with DHEA or 4-DHEA which tend to have an anti-lethargic effect.

7-oxo-DHEA
(7-oxo-dehydroepiandrosterone)
(Super-7-DHEA†)
 
Main effects –
 
+ Fat loss
+ Weight loss
+ Muscle sparing (anti-catabolic)
+ Immune supporting
 
 
Primary metabolite –
 
Androstenetriol (AET)
 
Description –
 
7-oxo-DHEA is a naturally occurring metabolite of DHEA. It’s well known for its weight loss effect due to its strong thermogenic action. (4, 15, 16)
 
The strong thermogenic effect from 7-oxo-DHEA come from its ability to increase two thermogenic enzymes, which increases the body’s ability to burn off calories as heat. (4) Although DHEA shares a similar effect, 7-oxo-DHEA is about 2.5x more active than DHEA. (4) Human studies have shown that 7-oxo-DHEA can increase weight loss, with a majority of weight loss being actual fat tissue. (15-16) Aside from the thermogenic action, 7-oxo-DHEA also appears to be an aromatase inhibitor, which can reduce estrogen levels. 
 
Because of the modification in the 7th position, 7-oxo-DHEA cannot convert to testosterone or estrogen, nor does it have any androgenic or anabolic effects. (15) Because of this, it does not produce side-effects such as hair loss, acne or prostate inflammation. It also blocks the catabolic effect of cortisol, which helps to retain muscle during a low calorie diet.
 
Side-effects of 7-oxo-DHEA may include anxiety or sleeplessness similar to regular DHEA due to the neuro-stimulating effect. However, this is generally mild, and seems to only occur in some users. Overall 7-oxo-DHEA is very tolerable and safe at the typical 100-200mg/day dose. (15, 16)
 
While 7-oxo-DHEA can be useful for a cutting or weight loss protocol, it would not be wise to use during a bulking or mass building cycle. Its tendency to increase the metabolism and rate of calorie burning will make it difficult to build additional muscle mass. (4)
 
†:The “Super” (ex., "Super-5-DHEA") signifies a fatty ester attachment to the steroid molecule to assist in bioavailability.

R-DHEA
(androsterone)
(Super-R-DHEA†)
 
Main effects –
 
+ Strength 
+ Hardening
+ Bloat reduction
+ Recovery
+ Anti-estrogen
+ Sex drive
+ Aggression 
 
 
Primary metabolite –
 
Androstanediol (5-AA)
 
Description –
 
R-DHEA is known as “Reduced DHEA” because it is a 5a-reduced metabolite of DHEA. It’s more commonly referred to as androsterone.
 
This naturally occurring hormone cannot convert to testosterone, but instead converts to the dihydrotestosterone (DHT). (10, 18) Similar to testosterone, DHT is responsible for masculine traits such as aggression, sex drive, and physical strength. (19,20) However, because DHT cannot convert to estrogen, it also helps reduce fat storage and water retention, making it an excellent steroid for increasing muscular hardness and vascularity. 
 
R-DHEA will stack well with 5-DHEA or 4-DHEA as it will help reduce water retention from under the skin, thus creating a “dry” and hard appearance. R-DHEA also has moderate anabolic properties thus allowing it to help enhance lean muscle gains. (21)
 
Strength gains will also be noticeable with R-DHEA due to its strong androgenic effect which will activate the central nervous system and increase muscular power. (20) This will increase explosive power with minimal bodyweight increase. The increased aggression is typically a welcomed benefit, which manifests as increased confidence and an “alpha male” feeling in sexual and social activities. 
 
The strong androgenic action from R-DHEA will also help support libido and erection hardness. (20) This makes R-DHEA useful to help counter the sexually suppressive effects from other steroids. The powerful androgenic effect will also block estrogenic effects, and help prevent (and reverse) gyno. (22, 23)
 
Side-effects from R-DHEA will be limited to androgenic side-effects such as oily skin, acne, and increased hair shedding if the user is prone. These side effects are mild and temporary for most users.
 
 
†:The “Super” (ex., "Super-5-DHEA") signifies a fatty ester attachment to the steroid molecule to assist in bioavailability.
References –
 
1. DHEA treatment for HIV patients: Effects on mood, androgenic and anabolic parameters. 
Rabkin, J., et al. 
Psychoneuro endocrinology. R. 25, 53-68. 2000
 
2. Activation of immune function by dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in age- advanced men. 
Khorram O, et al.
J Gerontol 1997; 52A:M1- M7.
 
3. Effects of replacement dose of dehydroepiandrosterone in men and women of advancing age.
Morales AJ, et al
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1994 Jun;78(6):1360-7. Erratum in: J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1995 Sep;80(9):2799.
 
4. Ergosteroids: induction of thermogenic enzymes in liver of rats treated with steroids derived from dehydroepiandrosterone.
LARDY H, et al. 
Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 92: 6617-6619, 1995.
 
5. Dehydroepiandrosterone: kinetics of metabolism in normal men and women.
Bird CE et al.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1978 Oct;47(4):818-22.
 
6. In vivo conversion of dehydroisoandrosterone to plasma androstenedione and testosterone in man.
Horton R, et al.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1967 Jan;27(1):79-88.
 
7. In vitro metabolism of androgens in whole human blood.
Blaquier et al.
Acta Endocrinol (Copenh). 1967 Aug;55(4):697-704. No abstract available.
 
8. Androgens and anabolic agents
Julius A. Vida
Chemistry and pharmacology (1969) 
 
9. METABOLISM OF ANDROST-4-ENE-3,17-DIONE-4-14C BY RABBIT SKELETAL MUSCLE SUPERNATANT FRACTION. ISOLATION OF 3BETA-HYDROXYANDROST-4-EN-17-ONE-14C AND TESTOSTERONE-14C.
THOMAS et al.
J Biol Chem. 1964 Mar;239:766-72
 
10. Seized designer supplement named “1-Androsterone” identification as 3b-hydroxy-5a-androst-1-en-17-one and its urinary elimination.
Maria K et al.,
Steroids. 2011 Feb 16.
 
11. Circulating bioactive androgens in midlife women.
Chen et al.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Nov;91(11):4387-94. Epub 2006 Aug 29.
 
12. Partial agonist/antagonist properties of androstenedione and 4-androsten-3beta,17beta-diol.
Chen Fet al.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2004 Aug;91(4-5):247-57.
 
13. Direct agonist/antagonist functions of dehydroepiandrosterone.
Chen et al.
Endocrinology. 2005 Nov; 146(11):4568-76. Epub 2005 Jun 30
 
14. Testosterone metabolism revisited: discovery of new metabolites.
Pozo, et al.
Anal Bioanal Chem. 2010 Oct;398(4):1759-70. 
 
15. A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled study of 3 – acetyl – 7 – oxo – dehydroepiandrosterone in healthy overweight adults. 
Kalman, D., et al. 
(2000). Curr. Ther. Res. 61, 435-442.
 
16. The effect of 7 – keto Naturalean on weight loss: A randomized, double blind placebo controlled trial. Zenk, J., et al. 
(2002). Curr. Ther. Res. 63, 263-272.
 
17. Antiglucocorticoid function of androstenetriol. Psychoneuroendocrinology 
Loria RM. Et al.
1997;22 Suppl 1:S103-8.
 
18. Physiological Changes in Dehydroepiandrosterone Are Not Reflected by Serum Levels of Active Androgens and Estrogens But of Their Metabolites: Intracrinology
Fernand Labrie, et al.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997 Aug;82(8):2403-9
 
19. Evaluation of androgen antagonism of estrogen effect by dihydrotestosterone.
Hung TT, et al. 
J Steroid Biochem. 1983 Oct;19(4):1513-20.
 
20. The effects of transdermal dihydrotestosterone in the aging male: a prospective, randomized, double blind study.
Kunelius P, et al.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Apr;87(4):1467-72.
 
21. Comparative activities of compounds of the androsterone-testosterone series.
Deanesly R, et al.
Biochem J. 1936 Feb;30(2):291-303.
 
22. Treatment of persistent pubertal gynecomastia with dihydrotestosterone heptanoate.
Eberle AJ, et al
J Pediatr. 1986 Jul;109(1):144-9.
 
23. Successful percutaneous dihydrotestosterone treatment of gynecomastia occurring during highly active antiretroviral therapy: four cases and a review of the literature.
Benveniste O et al.
Clin Infect Dis. 2001 Sep 15;33(6):891-3. 
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